Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emission of pollutants. In a fuel cell, the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen produces water and electricity and as such provides a clean alternative to fossil fuels.
Mussels (bivalves of the family Mytilidae) are incredible animals with a long fossil history. For millions of years, populations of mussels have been able to withstand pounding waves by attaching themselves to the seafloor using threads that are one of the strongest materials found in nature.
Understanding the consequences of metal pollution is of increasing importance given the ever-growing consumption of resources and the increasing sophistication of metallic products, creating new and different types of waste, which is often discarded into the environment (Nriagu, 1990).