An explosion in high speed rail development has resulted in trains setting a new world record of 600 km/h. Commercial airplanes operate in the region of 750 km/h, meaning high speed rail is superseding air travel in many parts of the world.
There is a global push for future renewable energy generation from biofuels to mitigate climate change, estimated to range between 40-190 EJ final energy in 2070 (Biomass and Bioenergy, 2015:74:253-267).
The number of metro commuters has continuously increased over recent years in metropolitan cities such as London. The air quality and thermal comfort in the subway indoor environment is of particular public concern.