Chloroplasts are responsible for photosynthesis, and are the organelles that define plants . They evolved as a result of an endosymbiotic relationship between a cyanobacterium and an algal progenitor, in a process that began over a billion years ago.
The connection between how organisms have evolved and how they behave is a fundamental principle of biology. It can show us why organisms are the way they are, and answer deep questions about the diversity of life on earth.
Photosynthesis is the ultimate source of food and energy for almost all forms of life. Using sunlight as the energy input, photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere generating the oxygen and carbohydrate that support complex life.
The shapes and sizes of organisms and organs are scrupulously conserved within a species. What regulates the shapes and sizes of organisms and their lateral organs are intriguing and fundamental questions in Biology.
Erosion and flooding represent significant threats to our coastlines. In recent years, much progress has been made in understanding the role of natural habitats in providing coastal protection both in isolation and, in combination with, engineered sea defence structures.