Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. National guidelines recommend reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in high and medium-risk individuals through lifestyle advice and the prescription of lipid-lowering medication.
Questions about how risk factors influence disease outcomes are fundamental to epidemiology. However, these questions are difficult to answer, as relevant data are usually observational, and thus associations are not necessarily a reliable guide for causal relationships.
Stroke is a common complication of atrial fibrillation (AF), which itself is the most widespread cardiac arrhythmia. However, the assessment of stroke risk is not straightforward in a large population of AF patients who are presented in sinus rhythm (SR), including patients after catheter ablation (CA) therapy, i.e.