4D printing has been introduced as a novel manufacturing technique where additive manufacturing is being used to create 3D object that deliver an extra functionality such as changing shape when exposed to external stimuli such as temperature.
The wings of a morpho butterfly show vivid blue colour because of the presence of periodic nanostructures. We have been developing photochemistries and materials to fabricate similar nanostructures made of hydrogels.
All organisms respond to vibration, and bacteria are no exception. It is well established that external vibration can affect bacterial phenotypes, including surface adhesion, proliferation and virulence.