Critical developments in nuclear technology rely on the availability of high-temperature irradiation and mechanical damage-tolerant materials that can be synthesised at low cost, for example, graphite and MAX phases.
Pure water droplets in clouds can remain liquid down to temperatures approaching -40 degrees C because creating an interface between the first region to solidify (the nucleus) and the remaining liquid has a free energy cost.
University of Bristol, four-year studentships for eligible candidates with first or upper second class honours degree in Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Mathematics, Computer Science, Physics or similar numerate discipline.
Transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR) pathways prioritise the repair of certain lesions in "active" genes. These pathways help maintain genome integrity throughout the lifetime of multi-cellular organisms, and thus help prevent the occurrence of mutation that might cause cancer or other disorders.