Background. To ensure safety of any engineering system so that human life is protected and the environment is safe it is logical to be able to define when it is operating outside of its design condition.
The central dogma of molecular biology states that genetically encoded information flows from DNA to mRNA to protein. The flow from DNA to mRNA occurs through a process called transcription and the flow from mRNA to protein through a process called translation.
For a fast-moving infectious disease such as influenza, whether seasonal or pandemic, or a newly emergent infectious disease, the ability to quickly evaluate the current spread of disease is crucial for understanding and forecasting the burden, particularly severe burden, on public health services such as GPs and hospitals.
Background. There is great potential to use electronic health record (EHR) datasets to improve care of patients, as EHR are typically bigger, longer and more representative of the healthcare population than traditional research cohorts.
Questions about how risk factors influence disease outcomes are fundamental to epidemiology. However, these questions are difficult to answer, as relevant data are usually observational, and thus associations are not necessarily a reliable guide for causal relationships.
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. National guidelines recommend reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in high and medium-risk individuals through lifestyle advice and the prescription of lipid-lowering medication.