Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emission of pollutants. In a fuel cell, the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen produces water and electricity and as such provides a clean alternative to fossil fuels.
Increasing demand for clean energy has led to significant research towards the development of energy-efficient and environment-friendly technological solutions of carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) which encompasses methods to remove CO2 from the flue gas and from the atmosphere, recycling the CO2 for utilization and safe storage options.
Metal-ceramic composites offer many advantages over monolithic metals and their alloys such as high specific stiffness and strength, better creep, fatigue and wear resistance, and good thermal properties.
In many oil wells the natural energy associated with oil is not strong enough to cause flow into the production facilities. In such cases, some form of artificial lift should supplement natural energy.