Marine plankton respond rapidly to environmental change associated with climate change and also emissions of waste and pollutants, which may cause significant losses in biodiversity and impact ecosystem resilience.
An ever-increasing number of people use nature for recreation and tourism across all ecoregions. Those activities now threaten the conservation of 5930 species and marine coastal regions are particularly affected (Lusseau & Mancini 2018).
Increasing use is made of marine protected areas (MPAs) to locally manage and conserve marine biodiversity. Although highly mobile, with complex temporal and spatial movement patterns, many endangered elasmobranchs show site association to critical habitats at important life history stages.