Importance. Networks of data from palaeoclimate archives across the globe now provide an unprecedented view of the Earth’s recent climate history – the context within which human-induced climate change sits.
Outline. Quantifying changes in solar activity over the past 1000 years is an important part of understanding long-term changes in climate, as well as placing man-made climate change into a wider context.
Globally, floods cause thousands of fatalities and huge economic losses every year. There is an increasing need for risk assessments of extreme hydro-meteorological hazards as well as sustainable water resources management.
‘Biodiversity offsets’ are a means of delivering a form of compensation for biodiversity loss so that there is an overall outcome of ‘no net loss’ from development (Rajvanshi et al., 2011, Brownlie et al., 2013).
The Gaia hypothesis (Lovelock & Margulis 1974) proposes that organisms have a significant effect on the physical and chemical environment on Earth, and that feedback loops between organisms and the environment have evolved that stabilize the environment.