Outline. Quantifying changes in solar activity over the past 1000 years is an important part of understanding long-term changes in climate, as well as placing man-made climate change into a wider context.
Fluid motion is vital to the function of healthy plants. For example, transpiration causes water to be drawn upwards from root to leaf through the conducting elements of the xylem, and pressure-driven flow carries the products of photosynthesis through the phloem.
Fluid-conveying elastic-walled tubes arise in many engineering and biomechanical systems. Examples include blood flow in veins and arteries, flow in the airways, and industrial fluid transport and pumping systems.