About the Project
RequirementsThe candidate should have a first class or upper second class honours degree, or a master’s degree (or equivalent qualification), in physics or mathematics. Evidence of good spoken and written English is essential. The candidate should have an IELTS score of 6.5 or above, if the first language is not English. This position is open to all qualified candidates irrespective of nationality.
DegreeThe student will be awarded a PhD degree from the University of Liverpool (UK) upon successful completion of the program.
Project DescriptionThe Standard Model of particle physics provides a mathematical description of the most basic constituents of matter observed in nature, and their interactions via three of the four fundamental forces of nature. Despite the model’s overwhelming success, its underlying mathematical structure is not derived from more fundamental principles. Explaining the mathematical structure of the Standard Model remains a prominent challenges in physics. The focus of this project is to explain the properties and interactions of elementary particles in terms of division algebras, of which mathematics admits only four, and the Clifford algebras generated from them.
For relevant background to the project, see:
Gresnigt, N. G. (2018). Braids, normed division algebras, and standard model symmetries. Phys. Lett. B, 783, 212-221,
Gillard, A. B., & Gresnigt, N. G. (2019). Three fermion generations with two unbroken gauge symmetries from the complex sedenions. EPJ C, 79(5), 446,
And references therein.
For more information about doctoral scholarship and PhD programme at Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University (XJTLU): Please visit
How to ApplyInterested applicants are advised to email…....@xjtlu.edu.cn (XJTLU principal supervisor’s email address) the following documents for initial review and assessment (please put the project title in the subject line).
• Two reference letters with company/university letterhead
• Personal statement outlining your interest in the position
• Proof of English language proficiency (an IELTS score of 6.5 or above)
• Verified school transcripts in both Chinese and English (for international students, only the English version is required)
• Verified certificates of education qualifications in both Chinese and English (for international students, only the English version is required)
• PDF copy of Master Degree dissertation (or an equivalent writing sample) and examiners reports available
Informal enquiries may be addressed to Dr. Niels Gresnigt (firstname.lastname@example.org), whose personal profile is linked below,
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