Advancing optics and electronics of endoscopy and endomicroscopy

   School of Science and Engineering

About the Project

Throughout the history of microscopy, the endeavour has been to see smaller and smaller features. The key challenge in biology has been to observe this in vivo as this provides a dynamic view into living phenomena. An even bigger challenge to observe cellular and sub-cellular events as-they-happen in a living human body. We work to build tools which will transform our understanding of disease by deploying and developing devices which will see cellular events in the clinic and at low cost. The PhD student will design new instrumentation, software and endomicroscopy probes (e.g. fibre-bundle or chip-on-tip based) to enhance the spatial resolution of existing ones while ensuring in vivo clinical option is maintained. The technology for human in vivo cell imaging at sub-micron resolutions inside patients is not available. The student helped by the supervisory team will break this deadlock from technical perspective opening new opportunities for follow-up clinical studies. Student will have at disposal a clinically approved and custom endomicroscopy instrument [1,2]. There will be opportunities for students to collaborate with clinicians beyond NHS Tayside and also exploit the facilities in the Division for Imaging and Technology, University of Dundee as well as collaborate with teams from the EPSRC IRC Proteus project at the Universities of Edinburgh, Durham, Bath and Heriot-Watt.

For further information, please see and

For informal enquiries about the project, contact Dr Nikola Krstajic ()

For general enquiries about the University of Dundee, contact

Our research community thrives on the diversity of students and staff which helps to make the University of Dundee a UK university of choice for postgraduate research. We welcome applications from all talented individuals and are committed to widening access to those who have the ability and potential to benefit from higher education.


Applicants must have obtained, or expect to obtain, a UK honours degree at 2.1 or above (or equivalent for non-UK qualifications), and/or a Masters degree in a relevant discipline. For international qualifications, please see equivalent entry requirements here:

English language requirement: IELTS (Academic) overall score must be at least 6.5 (with not less than 6.0 in writing and 5.5 in reading, listening and speaking). The University of Dundee accepts a variety of equivalent qualifications; please see full details of the University’s English language requirements here:


Step 1: Email Dr Nikola Krstajic () to (1) send a copy of your CV and (2) discuss your potential application and any practicalities (e.g. suitable start date).

Step 2: After discussion with Dr Krstajic, formal applications can be made via our direct application system. When applying, please follow the instructions below:

Apply for the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree in Biomedical Engineering. This project is suitable for the three year route or the four year route, as agreed with the lead supervisor. Select the start date and study mode (full-time/part-time) agreed with the lead supervisor.

 Biomedical engineering : Study : University of Dundee

Please select the study mode (full-time/part-time) and start date agreed with the lead supervisor.

In the Research Proposal section, please:

-       Enter the lead supervisor’s name in the ‘proposed supervisor’ box

-       Enter the project title listed at the top of this page in the ‘proposed project title’ box

In the ‘personal statement’ section, please outline your suitability for the project selected.

Funding Notes

There is no funding attached to this project. The successful applicant will be expected to provide the funding for tuition fees, project-specific bench fees and living expenses via external sponsorship or self-funding.


1. N. Krstajic, B. Mills, I. Murray, A. Marshall, Norberg, Dominic, T. H. Craven, P. Emanuel, T. R. Choudhary, G. C. O. Williams, E. Scholefield, A. R. Akram, A. Davie, N. Hirani, A. Bruce, A. Moore, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, "Low-Cost High Sensitivity Pulsed Endomicroscopy to Visualize Tri-Color Optical Signatures," Journal of Biomedical Optics, 23, (2018).
2. N. Krstajic, A. R. Akram, T. R. Choudhary, N. McDonald, M. G. Tanner, E. Pedretti, P. A. Dalgarno, E. Scholefield, J. M. Girkin, A. Moore, M. Bradley, and K. Dhaliwal, "Two-color widefield fluorescence microendoscopy enables multiplexed molecular imaging in the alveolar space of human lung tissue," Journal of Biomedical Optics 21, (2016).

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