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  An evaluation of biochemical and haemostatic function in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).

   PhD Opportunities

  , ,  Applications accepted all year round  Self-Funded PhD Students Only

About the Project

The Maelor Academic Unit of Medical & Surgical Sciences (MAUMSS) is a novel initiative by the Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board (BCUHB), and is designed to encourage and support research within the Health Board and to promote academic activity, basic science and clinical research across North Wales (UK) and beyond. MAUMSS is located in Wrexham (North Wales, UK) and staffed by an interdisciplinary team of academics, clinicians, scientists and postgraduate students who are available to lead on and help other healthcare professionals develop and run all kinds of clinical research projects. It has several laboratories containing state-of-the-art molecular, analytical and diagnostic equipment. There are also meeting rooms, video-conferencing and hot-desk facilities too. All of this is available for use to encourage new researchers (promote lifelong learning and continuous professional development), help maximise research impact and ultimately provide better outcomes for patients and the public.

As part of its formal collaborative partnership with Wrexham University (WU), MAUMSS has been instrumental in conceiving, developing and subsequently delivering an Institute of Biomedical Science (IBMS) accredited BSc (Hons) Biomedical Science, an MSc Biomedical Science and two IBMS approved MRes programmes in Applied Biomedical Sciences Research and Applied Clinical Research. MAUMSS, in collaboration with WU, also deliver successful MPhil and PhD (including Professional Doctorates) programmes. To date, these academic programmes have been very successful and continue to grow and have provided the opportunity for the development of new academic programmes, which further strengthens the well-established collaborative partnership between BUCHB and WU.

PhD Project


Bladder Cancer remains a major health burden, with over 10,000 new cases diagnosed annually in the UK. Around 80% of all cases are diagnosed as Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC), and 75% of patients have cancer recurrence and progression within 10 years. Patients with NMIBC are treated by Trans-Urethral Resection of the Bladder Tumour (TURBT), with approximately 8% of patients subsequently developing post-operative complications, such as bleeding, pain and infection. Currently, there is limited literature on the 'normal' pathophysiological response to TURBT for NMIBC, and predictors for post-operative complications.


The aim of this clinical-pilot observational study is to evaluate changes in routine and haemostatic blood tests following TURBT. 

As part of your PhD you will be registered with Wrexham University (Wrexham, North Wales, UK) and based at BCUHB-MAUMSS.

NB: A small contribution toward tuition fees of up to £1500 per year may be provided for this study.

Biological Sciences (4) Medicine (26)


Ella-Tongwiis, P., Makanga, A., Shergill, I., & Fôn Hughes, S. (2021). Optimisation and validation of immunohistochemistry protocols for cancer research. Histology and histopathology, 36(4), 415–424.
Ella-Tongwiis, P., Lamb, R.M., Makanga, A. et al (2020). The role of antibody expression and their association with bladder cancer recurrence: a single-centre prospective clinical-pilot study in 35 patients. BMC Urol 20, 187.
Cancer Research UK. (2023). Bladder Cancer, Risks and Causes.
Burger, M., Catto, J.W., Dalbagni, G., Grossman, H.B., Herr, H., Karakiewicz, P., Kassouf,
W., Kiemeney, L.A., Vecchia, C.L., Shariat, S., & Lotan, Y. (2013) Epidemiology and Risk
Factors of Urothelial Bladder Cancer. European Association of Urology. 63(2):234-241.
Wells, H. (2015). Day case TURBT: the new UK gold standard? BAUS ePoster online
library. 99002.
Traxer, O., Pasqui, F., Gattegno, B., & Pearle, M.S. (2004). Technique and complications
of transurethral surgery for bladder tumours. British Journal of Urology International. 94(4): 492-496.

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