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Deforestation, forest degradation and fire in the tropics

  • Full or part time
    Dr D Spracklen
  • Application Deadline
    Wednesday, January 02, 2019
  • Funded PhD Project (European/UK Students Only)
    Funded PhD Project (European/UK Students Only)

Project Description

The aim of this PhD project is to understand the links between tropical deforestation, forest degradation and fire and to quantify the impacts on regional air quality and climate. New satellite datasets allow the interactions between fire and land-use change to be studied in detail. This project will use these latest datasets of fire and land-use change in combination with high-resolution model simulations. The PhD will contribute to an understanding of the role of fire in tropical land-use change and the impacts on climate and air quality.
Keywords
Tropics, deforestation, land-use change, climate

Project outline
Deforestation and forest degradation are pervasive across the tropics (Kalamandeen et al., 2018), contributing to climate change (Spracklen et al., 2018), air pollution (Reddington et al., 2015), loss of biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Forest degradation has historically been overlooked, but recent assessments suggest substantial contribution to carbon emissions. However, the impacts of forest degradation on regional climate and air quality are poorly known. Forest degradation may lead to a reduction in moisture fluxes and an increase in regional temperatures (Baker et al., in prep.). Smoke from understorey fires results in air pollution but the impacts are very uncertain. Attempts to reduce deforestation and increased protection of primary forests may shift land-use pressures onto secondary forests, as well as causing increased fire and forest degradation. These complex interactions between land-use and fire need to be better understood if effective policies are to be developed to protect tropical forests.

Project objectives
This PhD project aims to understand linkages between deforestation, forest degradation, secondary forest regrowth and fire. The project will exploit new remote-sensed datasets of fire and land-use change to explore these relationships in more detail than has previously been possible. This understanding will be used to make new predictions on the impacts of deforestation and forest degradation on regional air quality and climate. The project will focus on the Brazilian Amazon, exploiting the new TerraClass and DETER land-use datasets.
The project will involve the following components:
Analysis of remote sensed datasets of land-use change and fire. The project will exploit the TerraClass (Almeida et al., 2016) and DETER (Diniz et al., 2015) datasets, which use remote sensed observations to track land-use change in the Brazilian Amazon in unprecedented detail. The dataset will be combined with remote sensed datasets on the occurrence of fire to answer key questions on the role of land-use in the frequency of fire. The project will explore the contribution of fire to forest degradation over the past decade and the link between secondary forests, forest degradation and fire.
New estimate of emissions from fire on regional atmosphere. Land-use datasets will be combined with fire data to revise estimates of the emissions of carbon and air pollutants from fire in the Brazilian Amazon.
New estimate of the impacts of forest fire on regional atmosphere. The revised emissions developed above will be combined with high-resolution atmospheric models to quantify the impacts of emissions from fires on the regional atmosphere.

Training
The PhD will provide world-class training in 1) land-atmosphere interactions and climate science, 2) the analysis of large geophysical datasets, 3) numerical modelling of the atmosphere and land-surface, 4) use of high-performance computing, 5) communication of results outside academia.

Funding Notes

This EU ERC (DECAF) funded PhD is for up to 3.5 years, conditional upon satisfactory progress, and will include tuition fees (£4,400 for 2018/19), tax-free stipend (£14,777 for 2018/19), and a research training and support grant.

References

Almeida et al., High spatial resolution land use and land cover mapping of the Brazilian Legal Amazon in 2008 using Landsat-5/TM and MODIS data, Acta Amaz., 46(3), 2016.
Diniz et al., DETER-B: The new Amazon near real-time deforestation detection system, IEEE, 3619-3628, 2015.
Kalamandeen, M. et al., Pervasive rise of small-scale deforestation in Amazonia, Scientific Reports, 8, 1600, doi:10.1038/s41598-018-19358-2, 2018.
Reddington, C.L., Butt, E.W., Ridley, D.A., Artaxo, P., Morgan, W.T., Coe, H., Spracklen, D.V., Air quality and human health improvements from reductions in deforestation-related fire in Brazil, Nature Geoscience, doi:10.1038/ngeo2535, 2015.
Spracklen, D.V., Baker, J.C.A., Garcia-Carreras, L., Marsham, J., The effects of tropical vegetation on rainfall, Annual Review of the Environment and Resources, 42, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-102017-030136, 2018.

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