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Development of Circularity Metrics for Maritime Industry - Increased Value Extraction from End of Life Marine Assets

Department of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Marine Engineering

Dr Sefer Anil Gunbeyaz Friday, April 30, 2021 Funded PhD Project (UK Students Only)
Glasgow United Kingdom Aerospace Engineering Environmental Engineering Manufacturing Engineering Mechanical Engineering Materials Science

About the Project


This fully funded PhD offers an exciting opportunity to undertake research on a field with growing importance. The goal of this project is to develop circular economy metrics for maritime industry and to increase the end-of-life value of maritime assets.

 Research Focus

When an asset comes to the end of its useful or economic life, opportunities to reuse, repair, remanufacture and recycle the majority of the materials, equipment and parts and the risks from these decommissioning jobs arise.While shipping is classed as one of the most energy efficient transport modes, it currently lags behind sectors such as aerospace and automotive in terms of circular economy approaches, sustainability, accountability and the applications of technologies that have seen the other sectors excel in those aforementioned areas. The Circular economy approach is not well-established in the maritime and there is a need to “close the loop” to minimise waste and to increase the revenue stream. The current linear consumption economy that is inherent in shipping (McKenna et al., 2012) results in increased costs, increased health, safety and environmental risks and harms efforts in achieving sustainability targets. Ship recycling contributes significantly in reducing the demand for emission of intensive mining of iron ore and new steel production, through the utilisation of steel scrap. However, questions like that materials and equipment from ships are currently being underutilised in terms of their potential for reuse, remanufacturing and recycling, and the issues surrounding the conditions where the vast majority of ships are currently being recycled (SEP, 2016), bring a negative image to this industry.

 In this project, therefore, the main aim will be to implement circular economy principles and close the loop of the linear maritime economy through developing circular economy metrics for maritime industry and to implement circular economy principles to maritime industry to increase the end-of-life value of assets. Achieving this goal will not only increase the revenue stream of the yards and create new jobs, but it will also minimise the waste from the assets and decrease the environmental impact. By creating a framework to identify common materials (including hazardous wastes), high value items, end-of-life solutions and an overall circularity metrics, project will address an important gap within the industry. Considering the Ship-recycling and offshore decommissioning mainly conducted in developing countries (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Turkey and China are major countries), it is critical to improve the conditions surrounding the industry. This project will also contribute to the economic development of the recycler countries by supplying the needs of the manufacturing and other industries through the materials obtained from the end-of-life marine assets (Hossain and Islam, 2006, Mizanur Rahman and Mayer, 2015).


The successful candidate will be based at the Department of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Marine Engineering. The project will commence in 1 Oct 2021. Successful UK candidate will receive a fully-funded scholarship for three years, which covers all university tuition fees and an annual stipend.

Successful candidate will focus on the characteristics of the maritime industry, work on the materials and equipment on board maritime assets and develop circularity metrics for maritime industry. The ideal candidate should be able to work in an interdisciplinary, applications-focused field of growing importance. Candidate is expected to have following qualifications:

 ·        Strong background/work experience in the circular economy / decommissioning of maritime assets

·        Applicants should hold (or expect to get) a minimum of an upper second class honours degree or an MSc with distinction in engineering, or a related field

·        A self-motivated individual who will lead the development and direction of their own project.

·        A proactive approach, with initiative and ability to work independently

·        Ability to synthesise, summarise and draw conclusions

·        Strength to cope with schedules and deadlines

·        Excellent organisational and communication skills

·        Excellent written and spoken English.

·        An ability to work well in a team and collaborate across a large project with multiple ongoing subprojects.

 The studentship is due to commence 01 October 2021 but will remain open until filled. The studentship is open to all applicants. While international and EU students are welcome to apply, candidates must, however, be classified as a UK ‘home’ student to be eligible for the funding. For any queries, please contact Dr Sefer Anil Gunbeyaz.

Funding Notes

This is a 3 year PhD studentship open to the UK students and provides funding to cover stipend and UK level tuition fees. The minimum requirement is a Honours degree 1st, or MSc/MRes in a relevant discipline.


HOSSAIN, M. M. M. & ISLAM, M. M. 2006. Ship breaking activities and its impact on the coastal zone of Chittagong, Bangladesh: towards sustainable management.
JANSSON, K. 2016. Circular Economy in Shipbuilding and Marine Networks – A Focus on Remanufacturing in Ship Repair. In: AFSARMANESH, H., CAMARINHA-MATOS, L. M. & LUCAS SOARES, A. (eds.) Collaboration in a Hyperconnected World: 17th IFIP WG 5.5 Working Conference on Virtual Enterprises, PRO-VE 2016, Porto, Portugal, October 3-5, 2016, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
MCKENNA, S. A., KURT, R. E. & TURAN, O. 2012. A methodology for a 'design for ship recycling'. The Environmentally Friendly Ship. London: Royal Institution of Naval Architects.
MIZANUR RAHMAN, S. M. & MAYER, A. L. 2015. How social ties influence metal resource flows in the Bangladesh ship recycling industry. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 104, Part A, 254-264.

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