Anglia Ruskin University ARU Featured PhD Programmes
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Digital Deployment of Multiple Assessment Measures During Longitudinal Studies of Nature Connectedness and Well-Being

School of Health Sciences

Dundee United Kingdom Data Analysis Epidemiology Health Informatics Computer Science Geography Psychology Statistics

About the Project

Nature connectedness, the construct that captures the positive relationship between humans and the rest of nature, has been associated with wellbeing and ecological behaviours. A host of Nature-Based Interventions (NBIs) are now used to support mental health and wellbeing, as well as to promote pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours. Measuring changes in nature connectedness, as well as wellbeing is crucial when undertaking assessment of NBIs, and one of the ways to facilitate it would be through the deployment of digital measures. This PhD project will aim to explore the use of deploying multiple assessment measures digitally in order to measure nature connectedness and wellbeing in longitudinal NBIs.

For informal enquiries about the project, contact Professor Timothy Croudace ()
For general enquiries about the University of Dundee, contact

Applicants must have obtained, or expect to obtain, a first or 2.1 UK honours degree, or equivalent for degrees obtained outside the UK in a relevant discipline.

English language requirement: IELTS (Academic) score must be at least 6.5 (with not less than 5.5 in each of the four components). Other, equivalent qualifications will be accepted. Full details of the University’s English language requirements are available online:


Step 1: Email Professor Timothy Croudace () to (1) send a copy of your CV and (2) discuss your potential application and any practicalities (e.g. suitable start date).

Step 2: After discussion with Professor Croudace, formal applications can be made via UCAS Postgraduate. When applying, please follow the instructions below:

Apply for the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree in Nursing and Health Sciences: Select the start date and study mode (full-time/part-time) agreed with the lead supervisor.

In the ‘provider questions’ section of the application form:
- Write the project title and ‘’ in the ‘if your application is in response to an advertisement’ box;
- Write the lead supervisor’s name and give brief details of your previous contact with them in the ‘previous contact with the University of Dundee’ box.

In the ‘personal statement’ section of the application form, outline your suitability for the project selected.

Funding Notes

There is no funding attached to this project. The successful applicant will be expected to provide the funding for tuition fees and living expenses, via external sponsorship or self-funding.


McEwan, K.; Richardson, M.; Sheffield, D.; Ferguson, F.J.; Brindley, P. A Smartphone App for Improving Mental Health through Connecting with Urban Nature. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3373. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16183373

Keetharuth, A. D., Bjorner, J. B., Barkham, M., Browne, J., Croudace, T., & Brazier, J. E. (2019). Exploring the item-sets of the Recovering Quality of Life (ReQoL) measures using factor analysis. Quality of Life Research, 28(4), 1005-1015.

Keetharuth, A., Brazier, J., Connell, J., Bjorner, J., Carlton, J., Taylor Buck, E., Ricketts,T. , McKendrick, K. , Browne, J. , Croudace,T. , Barkham, M. (2018). Recovering Quality of Life (ReQoL): A new generic self-reported outcome measure for use with people experiencing mental health difficulties. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 212(1), 42-49. doi:10.1192/bjp.2017.10

Boehnke, J., & Croudace, T. J. (2016). Calibrating well-being, quality of life and common mental disorder items: psychometric epidemiology in public mental health research. British Journal of Psychiatry, 209(2), 162-168.

Stochl, J., Boehnke, J., Pickett, K. E., & Croudace, T. J. (2016). An evaluation of computerized adaptive testing for general psychological distress: combining GHQ-12 and Affectometer-2 in an item bank for public mental health research. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 16, 1-15. [58].

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