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  Effect of laser pulsing and interlaying machining on residual stresses in laser direct energy deposition

   Birmingham and BAM Joint PhDs

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  Prof Khamis Essa  No more applications being accepted  Funded PhD Project (European/UK Students Only)

About the Project

The University of Birmingham's College of Engineering and Physical Sciences (UoB EPS) and the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, BAM) are offering co-funded PhD studentships, giving PhD candidates in mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, and materials engineering subjects the opportunity to study alongside world-leading academics.

 BAM is a world-leading centre of excellence for “Safety in technology and chemistry” with responsibility to the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action. Uniquely positioned at the interface of science, technology, industry and policymaking, BAM integrates research, assessment and consultation within its five focus areas Analytical Sciences, Materials, Energy, Environment and Infrastructure, providing a crucial contribution to the technical safety of products and processes, development of industry and society.

The University of Birmingham (UK) is a leading comprehensive research institution, distinguished by the breadth and exceptional quality of its research. Established in 1900, the University has been pursuing and sharing knowledge through outstanding teaching and world-leading research. We are the original ‘redbrick’ University, part of the prestigious Russell Group; our thriving student population enjoys a wide range of courses, and exceptional campus and research facilities.

 BAM and UoB established a bilateral strategic partnership in 2018 that has delivered thriving, exciting and innovative research in the fields of Chemistry, Energy, Additive Manufacturing and Environmental Sciences.

 These studentships are aligned with BAM’s research priorities, providing students with an opportunity to contribute directly to the safety of strategic technologies. Each student will benefit from co-supervision by a senior BAM scientist who will work closely with the UoB academic supervisor to maximise the value of the joint studentship.

 Each PhD student will spend 21 months at UoB and 21 months at BAM (located in Berlin). This will allow students to utilize both UoB´s and BAM´s formidable facilities, and to enhance the research through access to the holistic network of senior researchers at both institutions.

Applications are invited for the following Project:

Effect of laser pulsing and interlaying machining on residual stresses in laser direct energy deposition

UoB Supervisor and School:

Prof. Khamis Essa,, School of Engineering

BAM Supervisor and Division:

Dr. Alexander Evans, Division 8.5 X-ray Imaging

Short Summary:

During laser additive manufacturing such as Laser beam Direct Energy Deposition (DED-LB/M), the rapid heating and cooling leads to thermal distortion, residual stresses and textured microstructure. Residual stresses in particular can lead to deformation, cracking, and reduced structural integrity, significantly limiting the applicability of metal AM technologies in various industries. Post-processing heat treatment has been used to overcome some of these issues. However, this adds an extra step in the manufacturing process and leads to microstructure changes in complex alloying systems. To mitigate these challenges, this project proposes a novel in-process microstructure modification approaches via laser pulsing and interlayer machining.

The former approach focuses on the implementation of laser pulsing during DED-LB/M of 316L. By strategically modulating the laser energy during material deposition, we aim to influence the cooling rates and thermal gradients within the fabricated layers. The later approach involves interlayer machining, which introduces controlled material removal between successive layers. This technique offers the opportunity to relieve accumulated stresses by selectively removing material. The student will study the influence of both approaches on microstructure development and mechanical properties (at UoB) as well as on the residual stresses (at BAM). Also, numerical models will be developed to validate the results. 

Eligibility Criteria

The entry requirements are either:

-              An upper second-class honours undergraduate degree in a relevant subject.

-              An MSc/MRes/MEng in a relevant subject.

 How to Apply

Applicants must choose a project listed above and make their application through the Application Portal. Applicants are encouraged to contact prospective supervisors informally to discuss the project. Applications should include a statement of research interests. Please detail the supervisor and project title under the Research Information section of the application form. For further information on how to apply please visit

Engineering (12) Materials Science (24)

Funding Notes

Value of Award
A fully funded studentship is available for students on this PhD programme for October 2024 start. During their time at UoB, students will receive a UKRI-rate Doctoral Stipend. During their time at BAM, students will receive a regular work contract .

Where will I study?

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