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  Epigenetics of early human development: From molecular mechanisms to regenerative medicine

   Molecular and Cell Biology

  Dr Yolanda Markaki, Dr T Schalch  Thursday, May 23, 2024  Competition Funded PhD Project (UK Students Only)

About the Project

Ever wondered how nature maintains balance of gene expression between sex chromosomes? Well, the 46th chromosome of XX females, the second X, has to be switched off. That way females equalize gene dosage of X-linked genes with XY males. The process of X-inactivation is an incredible event of whole chromosome silencing which occurs during embryonic development. Without this act of self-silencing of the X, female embryos won't survive, while X-inactivation can influence human health, from genetic diseases to cancer.  

But how does this "switch off" button work? And what happens if it malfunctions? If you've got a passion for understanding the foundations of life, developing strategies for regenerative medicine and you're in for a multidisciplinary research journey, join our mission to unravel the secrets of X-inactivation! 

What You'll Explore: 

·        XIST-SMACs: We've recently discovered these tiny molecular machines, which are key players in the silencing of the X chromosome (Markaki et al., 2021). We now want to investigate how XIST-SMACs form and control X-inactivation during human embryonic development when the process is established. 

·        Frontline Tech: Dive deep into human development using human pluripotent stem cells and super-resolution microscopy to observe changes on the inactivating X chromosome. 

·        Cold Revelations: Harness the power of cryo-electron microscopy to get up close and personal with XIST-SMACs, RNA-protein supercomplexes that regulate X-inactivation. 

·        Chemical Resets: Experiment with cutting-edge chemical tools to reset X-inactivation, paving the way for improved cell therapies. 

Why This Matters: Many pregnancies terminate during the mysterious time of X-inactivation while human pluripotent stem cells exhibit defects in the maintenance of the silenced X when being cultured and are thus inappropriate for regenerative medicine applications. With your help, we can unravel why this happens and develop new therapeutic strategies for X-linked diseases. 

Where You'll Thrive: You'll be part of the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology and become a proud member of the Leicester Institute of Structural and Chemical Biology (LISCB), a research institute of excellence offering access to world class facilities. Through the guidance of our expert team in developmental epigenetics, imaging, structural and chemical biology you'll embark on a holistic learning journey, mastering stem cells, genome editing, super-resolution microscopy, and more! 

Ready to make a mark in science? Embark on a PhD journey that takes you to the very heart of life's mysteries. 

Techniques that will be undertaken during the project

·        Pluripotent stem cell culturing methods 

·        Cloning and other molecular biology methods 

·        Gene editing and bioengineering techniques using CRISPR/Cas9 

·        RNA/DNA Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH), immunofluorescence 

·        Super-Resolution and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy  

·        Biochemical protein-RNA/protein-protein interaction assays and affinity purification 

·        High-resolution structural studies: small angle X-ray scattering, cryo-electron microscopy and other structural biology methods 

·        Data analysis and visualization in Fiji, R and Python 


Project Enquiries to  

Programme enquiries to 

To apply please refer to

Open to UK applicants only. Previous applicants for this project need not apply.

Biological Sciences (4)

Funding Notes

All MIBTP students will be provided with a 4 year studentship.
This includes:
Tuition fees at the UK fee rate*
a tax free stipend which for 2023/4 is £18,622 (2024/25 stipend to be confirmed)
a travel allowance in year 1
a travel/conference budget
a generous consumables budget
use of a laptop for the duration of the programme.
The University of Leicester will provide full overseas fee waivers for the duration of their study to all international students accepted at Leicester. The funder, UKRI, allows us to appoint up to 30% overseas students.


1. Markaki Y*, Chong JG, Wang Y, Jacobson EC, Luong C, Tan SYX, Jachowicz JW, Strehle M, Maestrini D, Dror I, Mistry BA, Schöneberg J, Banerjee A, Guttman M, Chou T*, Plath K*. Xist nucleates local protein gradients to propagate silencing across the X chromosome. Cell. 2021.
2. Bailey LT, Northall SJ, Schalch T. Breakers and amplifiers in chromatin circuitry: acetylation and ubiquitination control the heterochromatin machinery. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2021; 71:156-163.
3. Kraus F, Miron E, Demmerle J, Chitiashvili T, Budco A, Alle Q, Matsuda A, Leonhardt H, Schermelleh L, Markaki Y. Quantitative 3D structured illumination microscopy of nuclear structures. Nat Protoc. 2017;12(5):1011-28