Coventry University Featured PhD Programmes
Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre Featured PhD Programmes
University of Reading Featured PhD Programmes

Hate Propaganda in International Criminal Law: Current Socio-Legal and Evidentiary Challenges in Prosecuting Atrocity Speech at International Criminal Tribunals (Advert Reference: SF19/BL/LAW/BADAR)

Faculty of Business and Law

This project is no longer listed on and may not be available.

Click here to search for PhD studentship opportunities
Prof M Badar Applications accepted all year round Self-Funded PhD Students Only

About the Project

The aim of this research project is to provide a forum for a rigorous analysis and exploration of the necessity for an improved approach to dealing with the phenomenon of hate and fear propaganda at international criminal courts. While empirical research strongly indicates that propaganda falls on fertile grounds of our mental landscapes, the insights into the concept of propaganda in the legal sphere lag behind such studies and scientific publications. This leads to the false impression that the two fields are largely unrelated. Several recent judgments at international criminal tribunals have unveiled a number of serious substantial as well as evidentiary challenges to effective prosecution resulting in outcomes that were unable to bring a sense of justice to the affected communities. For this reason, this research project has a strong multi-disciplinary approach and will bring together law and social sciences. The project will also provide room for discussions about the opposing approaches to freedom of expression by academics from different legal traditions with a view of bridging the differences in the approach to hate propaganda. Debates around the limits of freedom of expression and speech acts potentially reaching into the field of criminality are extremely timely and important as we enter an era of dangerous populism sweeping over the world, including societies which were considered previously immune to such demagoguery. From Syria to Myanmar to the US, one would struggle to come across states currently unaffected by hate propaganda and its poisonous sting. The project should address the relevance and impact of the basic underlying conceptual and evidentiary, intra- and extra-legal, issues implicitly present in the many manifestations of propaganda as a cognitive and legal phenomenon identified within a broader framework of international criminal law.

This project is supervised by Professor Mohamed Badar.

Eligibility and How to Apply:

Please note eligibility requirement:
• Academic excellence of the proposed student i.e. 2:1 (or equivalent GPA from non-UK universities [preference for 1st class honours]); or a Masters (preference for Merit or above); or APEL evidence of substantial practitioner achievement.
• Appropriate IELTS score, if required.

For further details of how to apply, entry requirements and the application form, see:

Please note: Applications that do not include a research proposal of approximately 1,000 words (not a copy of the advert), or that do not include the advert reference (e.g. SF19/…) will not be considered.

Northumbria University takes pride in, and values, the quality and diversity of our staff. We welcome applications from all members of the community. The University holds an Athena SWAN Bronze award in recognition of our commitment to improving employment practices for the advancement of gender equality.

Funding Notes

Please note this is a self-funded project and does not include tuition fees or stipend.


Mohamed Badar, ‘The Road to Genocide. The Propaganda Machine of the Self-declared Islamic State (IS) 16 (3) International Criminal Law Review 361-411

Mohamed Badar, ‘Assessing incitement to hatred as a crime against humanity of persecution’, (2019) The International Journal of Human Rights DOI: 10.1080/13642987.2019.1671356 with Polona Florijančič

Mohamed Badar ‘The Cognitive and Linguistic Implications of ISIS Propaganda: Proving the Crime of Direct and Public Incitement to Genocide’ in Predrag Dojčinović (ed.), Propaganda and International Criminal Law: From Cognition to Criminality (Routledge 2020) with Polona Florijančič

Mohamed Badar, ‘Incitement to Murder through Excommunication: Assessing the Criminalisation of the Practice of Takfir in the African Region’ in Olufemi Amao, Michele Olivier and Konstantin Magliveras (eds.), The Emergent African Union Law: Conceptualization, Delimitation, and Application (Oxford University Press, 2021)

FindAPhD. Copyright 2005-2021
All rights reserved.