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  Investigating functional and kinematic alterations in upper limb motion following clavicular malunions in adults using 3-D kinematic analysis and functional tasks.

   School of Medicine

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  Prof Arpit Jariwala, Dr W Wang  No more applications being accepted  Self-Funded PhD Students Only

About the Project

Current evidence suggests displaced, mid-shaft clavicle fractures can be managed conservatively with satisfactory long-term functional outcomes, although critically other studies suggest 42% of people have residual sequalae; including deficit in shoulder strength and endurance. Common side effects of a conservatively managed fracture leading to malunion include: pain, loss of strength, fatigue, neurological symptoms.

Questions that remain unanswered in the literature and that this PhD study aims to address is the following:

• An individual who has sustained a clavicle fracture and managed conservatively, is their functional ability compromised in comparison to a normal cohort of population when undertaking upper limb specific activities of daily living and sporting activities?

• An individual who has a clavicular malunion, is their shoulder kinematic similar to a normal cohort of population when undertaking upper limb specific activities of daily living and sporting activities?

For informal enquiries about the project, contact Prof Arpit Jariwala,

For general enquiries about the University of Dundee, contact

Our research community thrives on the diversity of students and staff which helps to make the University of Dundee a UK university of choice for postgraduate research. We welcome applications from all talented individuals and are committed to widening access to those who have the ability and potential to benefit from higher education.


Applicants must have obtained, or expect to obtain, a UK honours degree at 2.1 or above (or equivalent for non-UK qualifications), and/or a Masters degree in a relevant discipline. For international qualifications, please see equivalent entry requirements here:

English language requirement: IELTS (Academic) overall score must be at least 6.5 (with not less than 5.5 in reading, listening, speaking and 6.0 in writing). The University of Dundee accepts a variety of equivalent qualifications and alternative ways to demonstrate language proficiency; please see full details of the University’s English language requirements here:



Step 1: Email Prof Arpit Jariwala, to (1) send a copy of your CV and (2) discuss your potential application and any practicalities (e.g. suitable start date).

Step 2: After discussion with Prof Jariwala, formal applications can be made via our direct application system. When applying, please follow the instructions below:

Candidates must apply for the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree in Medicine (3 year) using our direct application system: apply for a PhD in Medicine.

Please select the study mode (full-time/part-time) and start date agreed with the lead supervisor.

In the Research Proposal section, please:

-         Enter the lead supervisor’s name in the ‘proposed supervisor’ box

-         Enter the project title listed at the top of this page in the ‘proposed project title’ box

In the ‘personal statement’ section, please outline your suitability for the project selected.

Medicine (26)

Funding Notes

There is no funding attached to this project. The successful applicant will be expected to provide the funding for tuition fees and living expenses, via external sponsorship or self-funding.


1. Nowak J, Holgersson M, Larsson S; Sequelae from clavicular fractures are common: a prospective study of 222 patients. Acta Orthop. 2005 Aug76(4):496-502.
2. McKee MD, Pedersen EM, Jones C, et al; Deficits following nonoperative treatment of displaced midshaft clavicular fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006 Jan88(1):35-40.
3. Zlowodzki M, Zelle BA, Cole PA, et al; Treatment of acute midshaft clavicle fractures: systematic review of 2144 fractures: on behalf of the Evidence-Based Orthopaedic Trauma Working Group. J Orthop Trauma. 2005 Aug19(7):504-7.

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