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Machining of additive manufactured titanium alloys for assembly qualification and process energy optimisation.

   School of Engineering

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  Dr Ashfaq Khan, Prof James Njuguna  No more applications being accepted  Competition Funded PhD Project (Students Worldwide)

About the Project

Robert Gordon University, through the School of Engineering is offering a PhD studentship, within the Advanced Materials Research Group.


Additive manufacturing produces fully functional, complex parts in a single step process. Near net shape metal parts with properties comparable to bulk material are already commercially produced. Also, AM has reduced material wastage and has smaller stock requirement. The assembly lines are massively reduced by replacing multi step manufacturing by a single step highly customisable AM process. Moreover, AM’s offers advantages by reduction in energy consumption both as in process energy consumption as well as wholistic due to material saving, stocking and assembly line reduction. However, AM parts may need post processing for assembly which is mostly done through high precision machining. Also, there is a need to investigate the overall energy consumption in AM processes. Titanium has excellent physical, mechanical and chemical properties and has thus got application in a wide range of industries. Titanium has a low density combined with high yield strength, elastic modulus and maintains these properties at high temperatures. These properties make it ideal for automotive and aerospace applications. Moreover, β-phase has been known to have excellent biomedical properties and is used as orthopaedic/bone implant.

The aim of this project is to produce titanium parts by AM and machine them to qualify for assembly while keeping energy consumption to a minimum. Titanium parts will be produced using metal AM and tolerances will be applied for post processing using machining. The AM parts will be machined so that they qualify for assembly. Energy consumption analysis would be conducted during the processing to develop a wholistic comparative analysis of the energy consumption between AM and conventional processed parts. Optimisation of the process will be conducted to establish the best working parameters for highest accuracy and minimum energy consumption. Project will include experimentation, statistical analysis and process simulation.

Desirable skills and knowledge: Knowledge or experience of polymer composites and modelling & simulation techniques will be advantageous.

Applications should be emailed to Dr Ashfaq Khan at [Email Address Removed]

The applications should consist of a covering letter or personal statement of interest, academic transcripts and a CV.

It is expected that candidates are available to register and commence study on 01 Feb 2023. In addition, the successful candidate will be expected to submit publications to refereed journals and to present their findings at international conferences.

Questions should initially be addressed to:

Dr Ashfaq Khan

School of Engineering, Robert Gordon University, Sir Ian Wood Building, Garthdee Campus, Aberdeen, AB10 7GJ United Kingdom

E: [Email Address Removed]



Entry Requirements

Applicants should have a First- or Second-Class UK honours degree, or equivalent, in a relevant discipline such Mechanical Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, Polymer Technology, Nanotechnology or Materials Science and Engineering. An MSc in a relevant subject is highly desirable. Knowledge or experience of polymer composites and modelling & simulations is advantageous.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, machining, titanium, energy consumption, optimisation, engineering materials, characterisation 

Funding Notes

Applicants are eligible for a fee waiver studentship for the duration of the 3 years. This studentship will cover the tuition fees only for qualified home or overseas students. Interested candidates will have to secure their own financial support to support their living costs during the duration of the PhD study.
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