Don't miss our weekly PhD newsletter | Sign up now Don't miss our weekly PhD newsletter | Sign up now

  Stress and health: Lifespan stress and cardio-metabolic disease risk pathways through cardiovascular stress reactivity


   Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport

This project is no longer listed on FindAPhD.com and may not be available.

Click here to search FindAPhD.com for PhD studentship opportunities
  Prof Anna Whittaker  Applications accepted all year round  Self-Funded PhD Students Only

About the Project

There are large physiological variations in how individuals respond to stressful stimuli which have important health and behavioural implications (Carroll et al., 2009a; Chida and Steptoe, 2010; Phillips and Hughes, 2011). Stress responses include the acute sympathetic nervous system response with adrenaline, measured via cardiovascular changes, as well as the slower cortisol response. The magnitude of individual differences in CV reactions during acute exposure to psychological stress have been shown to be relatively consistent and stable over time, indicating that the extent of stress reactivity is an individual trait rather than state (Ginty et al., 2013; Sherwood et al., 1990). It is also clear that these differences can have an impact on health and behaviour (Carroll et al., 2017, 2009b; Chida and Steptoe, 2010); individuals who show large magnitude CV reactions to acute psychological stress are at increased risk of developing CV Disease (CVD).  

In contrast, low or blunted CV reactivity to acute stress has been regarded as benign or even health protective. However, more recent evidence suggests that low CV, and also low cortisol reactivity to stress are also correlated with negative health outcomes and behaviours.  As such, blunted stress reactivity may indicate an alternative pathway to increased risk of CVD via negative health behaviours. Although there is a substantial body of evidence demonstrating the correlates of both exaggerated and blunted CV and cortisol reactivity, the exact origins of reactivity magnitude are unknown (Phillips et al., 2013). It has recently been suggested that genetic influences may interact with adverse childhood experiences to influence stress reactivity (Lovallo et al., 2016). Therefore, early-life adversity has also been implicated as a potential pathway to reactivity differences. Childhood adversity is also associated with poor health; being related to CVD (Appleton et al., 2017) and pre-disease markers such as increased carotid intima-media thickness/plaque (Khan et al., 2011). It is plausible that childhood adversity may, in part, link to negative health outcomes via dysregulated stress reactivity.

Research has suggested that early-life trauma influences future stress reactivity magnitude (Carpenter et al., 2011; Heim et al., 2000). It was originally thought that stressful childhoods contribute to the development of exaggerated physiological reactions to stress (Boyce and Ellis, 2005). However, recent research suggests that childhood adversity/stress may instead lead to blunted heart rate (Lovallo et al., 2012) and cortisol reactivity (Goldman-Mellor et al., 2012). This is supported by evidence using functional magnetic resonance imaging (Banihashemi et al., 2015). Despite the mixed findings, the bulk of research in healthy humans, implies that childhood adversity is associated with blunted and not exaggerated reactivity to acute psychological stress. However, clear explanations to why other studies have found conflicting evidence are lacking and thus the precise role of childhood adversity in determining reactivity magnitude remains unclear. It is possible that childhood adversity might result in either blunted or exaggerated reactivity, depending on a range of intervening factors in adulthood, including stressful life events in adulthood. We have previously shown that high levels of stressful events in adolescence and in older age are associated with blunted CV responses to acute stress (Carroll et al., 2005; Phillips et al., 2005). However, what is not known is whether early life and recent stressful life events interact to predict blunted or exaggerated stress reactivity, and thus, CVD risk. 

 However, most studies examine the impact of childhood or adult stress independently, rather than together, despite the contention that early exposure to stress and adult stress experience may additively contribute to later health outcomes (Evans & Kim, 2010) (accumulation model), or alternatively that childhood adversity may amplify the response to future stress exposure in adulthood resulting in pathology (McLaughlin et al., 2010) (sensitisation model). Further, it has been theorised that the trajectory of exposure to different risk factors across the lifespan can influence the development of future CVD, including risk factors such as depression and poor social support (Hardy et al., 2015). This highlights the importance of considering the interactions between stress and other psychosocial factors as well as stress at different points in the lifespan.

A very recent study has partially addressed this gap by examining early life adversity and recent life events and their association in the prediction of cardio-metabolic disease risk. This was measured through resting blood pressure, obesity markers, blood lipid and blood glucose measures, and showed that both types of stress were associated with increased body mass index, waist circumference and cardio-metabolic risk score (an aggregation of body fat and blood markers). These effects were not mediated by psychosocial factors such as depression, personality or coping styles (Gebreab et al., 2018). However, no interaction between childhood and adult adversity was shown in this study (suggesting additive not synergistic effects), and measurements did not incorporate stress reactivity, so it was not able to address the issue of the interaction of stress across the lifespan effects on reactivity. One study has examined the link between childhood adversity, CV reactivity, and adolescent psychopathology, and shown CV reactivity to be a linking mechanism such that individuals subject to early life trauma displayed externalising psychopathology which was mediated by inefficient reactivity, characterised by blunted cardiac output responding (Heleniak et al., 2016).

This project will address these gaps in knowledge and use it to understand how different types of stress relate through different pathways to increased CV disease risk. This could then be applied to stress screening to inform early psychosocial interventions to reduce CV disease risk.

Consequently, the present project aims to assess the impact of trajectories of stress across the lifespan on cardio-metabolic risk as well as stress reactivity. To address this aim, the project has two specific goals:

a)      to examine the interaction between childhood adversity and adult stressful life events on CV and cortisol reactivity to acute psychological stress in a new experimental study

b)     to examine whether any relationship between accumulation of stress across the lifespan and markers of cardio-metabolic risk, are linked via the magnitude of CV and cortisol reactivity in existing cohort studies.


Nursing & Health (27) Psychology (31) Sport & Exercise Science (33)

Funding Notes

Self-Funded Students Only
If you have the correct qualifications and access to your own funding, either from your home country or your own finances, your application to work with this supervisor will be considered.

References

Al’Absi, M. (2006). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical responses to psychological stress and risk for smoking relapse. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 59(3), 218–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2005.10.010
al’Absi, M., Hatsukami, D., & Davis, G. L. (2005). Attenuated adrenocorticotropic responses to psychological stress are associated with early smoking relapse. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 181(1), 107–117.
Allen, M. T., Matthews, K. A., & Sherman, F. S. (1997). Cardiovascular reactivity to stress and left ventricular mass in youth. Hypertension, 30(4), 782–787.
Anda, R. F., Croft, J. B., Felitti, V. J., Nordenberg, D., Giles, W. H., Williamson, D. F., & Giovino, G. A. (1999). Adverse childhood experiences and smoking during adolescence and adulthood. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282(17), 1652–1658. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.17.1652
Appleton, A. A., Holdsworth, E., Ryan, M., & Tracy, M. (2017). Measuring Childhood Adversity in Life Course Cardiovascular Research. Psychosomatic Medicine, 79(4), 434–440. https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000430
Banihashemi, L., Sheu, L. K., Midei, A. J., & Gianaros, P. J. (2015). Childhood physical abuse predicts stressor-evoked activity within central visceral control regions. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci, 10(4), 474–485. https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsu073
Barnett, P. A., Spence, J. D., Manuck, S. B., & Jennings, J. R. (1997). Psychological stress and the progression of carotid artery disease. J Hypertens, 15(1), 49–55.
Bergmann, N., Gyntelberg, F., & Faber, J. (2014). The appraisal of chronic stress and the development of the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies. Endocrine Connections, 3(2), R55-80. https://doi.org/10.1530/EC-14-0031
Boyce, W. T., & Ellis, B. J. (2005). Biological sensitivity to context: I. An evolutionary-developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Dev Psychopathol, 17(2), 271–301.
Brindle, R. C., Ginty, A. T., & Conklin, S. M. (2013). Is the association between depression and blunted cardiovascular stress reactions mediated by perceptions of stress? Int J Psychophysiol, 90(1), 66–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2013.06.003
Brindle, R. C., Ginty, A. T., Jones, A., Phillips, A. C., Roseboom, T. J., Carroll, D., Painter, R. C., & De Rooij, S. R. (2016). Cardiovascular reactivity patterns and pathways to hypertension: A multivariate cluster analysis. Journal of Human Hypertension, 30(12). https://doi.org/10.1038/jhh.2016.35
Brindle, R. C., Whittaker, A. C., Bibbey, A., Carroll, D., & Ginty, A. T. (2017). Exploring the possible mechanisms of blunted cardiac reactivity to acute psychological stress. Int J Psychophysiol, 113, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2016.12.011
Burch, A. E., & Allen, M. T. (2014). Stress task specific impairments of cardiovascular functioning in obese participants. Int J Psychophysiol, 94(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.07.002
Carpenter, L. L., Shattuck, T. T., Tyrka, A. R., Geracioti, T. D., & Price, L. H. (2011). Effect of childhood physical abuse on cortisol stress response. Psychopharmacology, 214(1), 367–375. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-010-2007-4
Carroll, D., Ginty, A. T., Der, G., Hunt, K., Benzeval, M., & Phillips, A. C. (2012). Increased blood pressure reactions to acute mental stress are associated with 16-year cardiovascular disease mortality. Psychophysiology, 49(10), 1444–1448. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2012.01463.x
Carroll, D., Ginty, A. T., Whittaker, A. C., Lovallo, W. R., & de Rooij, S. R. (2017). The behavioural, cognitive, and neural corollaries of blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 77, 74–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.02.025
Carroll, D., Phillips, A. C., & Balanos, G. M. (2009). Metabolically exaggerated cardiac reactions to acute psychological stress revisited. Psychophysiology, 46(2), 270–275. https://doi.org/PSYP762 [pii] 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2008.00762.x
Carroll, D., Phillips, A. C., & Der, G. (2008a). Body mass index, abdominal adiposity, obesity, and cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress in a large community sample. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(6). https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e31817b9382
Carroll, D., Phillips, A. C., & Der, G. (2008b). Body mass index, abdominal adiposity, obesity, and cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress in a large community sample. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(6), 653–660. https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e31817b9382
Carroll, D., Phillips, A. C., Der, G., Hunt, K., & Benzeval, M. (2011). Blood pressure reactions to acute mental stress and future blood pressure status: data from the 12-year follow-up of the West of Scotland Study. Psychosom Med, 73(9), 737–742. https://doi.org/PSY.0b013e3182359808 [pii] 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3182359808
Carroll, D., Phillips, A. C., Hunt, K., & Der, G. (2007). Symptoms of depression and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress: Evidence from a population study. Biological Psychology, 75(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2006.12.002
Carroll, D., Phillips, A. C., & Lovallo, W. R. (2009). Are large physiological reactions to acute psychological stress always bad for health? Social and Personality Compass (Health Section), 3, 725–743.
Carroll, D., Phillips, A. C., Ring, C., Der, G., & Hunt, K. (2005). Life events and hemodynamic stress reactivity in the middle-aged and elderly. Psychophysiology, 42(3). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2005.00282.x
Carroll, D., Ring, C., Hunt, K., Ford, G., & Macintyre, S. (2003). Blood pressure reactions to stress and the prediction of future blood pressure: effects of sex, age, and socioeconomic position. Psychosom Med, 65, 1058–1064. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.PSY.0000097330.58739.26
Chida, Y., & Steptoe, A. (2010). Greater cardiovascular responses to laboratory mental stress are associated with poor subsequent cardiovascular risk status: a meta-analysis of prospective evidence. Hypertension, 55(4), 1026–1032. https://doi.org/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.146621 [pii] 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.146621
Dahl, S. K., Larsen, J. T., Petersen, L., Ubbesen, M. B., Mortensen, P. B., Munk-Olsen, T., & Musliner, K. L. (2017). Early adversity and risk for moderate to severe unipolar depressive disorder in adolescence and adulthood: A register-based study of 978,647 individuals. Journal of Affective Disorders, 214, 122–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.03.014
Danese, A., & Tan, M. (2014). Childhood maltreatment and obesity: systematic review and meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry, 19(5), 544–554. https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2013.54
De Rooij, S. R., & Roseboom, T. J. (2010). Further evidence for an association between self-reported health and cardiovascular as well as cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress. Psychophysiology, 47(6), 1172–1175. https://doi.org/PSYP1023 [pii] 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2010.01023.x
de Rooij, S. R., Schene, A. H., Phillips, D. I., & Roseboom, T. J. (2010). Depression and anxiety: Associations with biological and perceived stress reactivity to a psychological stress protocol in a middle-aged population. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35(6), 866–877. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.11.011
DeBoer, M. D. (2013). Obesity, systemic inflammation, and increased risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes among adolescents: A need for screening tools to target interventions. Nutrition, 29(2), 379–386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2012.07.003
Dich, N., Hansen, Å. M., Avlund, K., Lund, R., Mortensen, E. L., Bruunsgaard, H., & Rod, N. H. (2015). Early life adversity potentiates the effects of later life stress on cumulative physiological dysregulation. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 28(4), 372–390. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2014.969720
Everson, S. A., Lynch, J. W., Chesney, M. A., Kaplan, G. A., Goldberg, D. E., Shade, S. B., Cohen, R. D., Salonen, R., & Salonen, J. T. (1997). Interaction of workplace demands and cardiovascular reactivity in progression of carotid atherosclerosis: population based study. Bmj, 314(7080), 553–558. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.314.7080.553
Franzen, J., & Brinkmann, K. (2015). Blunted cardiovascular reactivity in dysphoria during reward and punishment anticipation. Int J Psychophysiol, 95(3), 270–277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.11.007
Gebreab, S. Z., Vandeleur, C. L., Rudaz, D., Strippoli, M.-P. F., Gholam-Rezaee, M., Castelao, E., Lasserre, A. M., Glaus, J., Pistis, G., Kuehner, C., von Känel, R., Marques-Vidal, P., Vollenweider, P., & Preisig, M. (2018). Psychosocial stress over the lifespan, psychological factors, and cardio-metabolic risk in the community. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1. https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000621
Georgiades, A., Lemne, C., de Faire, U., Lindvall, K., & Fredrikson, M. (1997). Stress-induced blood pressure measurements predict left ventricular mass over three years among borderline hypertensive men. Eur J Clin Invest, 27(9), 733–739. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2362.19971800729.x
Ginty, A. T., Gianaros, P. J., Derbyshire, S. W. G., Phillips, A. C., & Carroll, D. (2013). Blunted cardiac stress reactivity relates to neural hypoactivation. Psychophysiology, 50, 219–229.
Ginty, A. T., Jones, A., Carroll, D., Roseboom, T. J., Phillips, A. C., Painter, R., & de Rooij, S. R. (2014). Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress are attenuated in smokers. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.05.023
Goldman-Mellor, S., Hamer, M., & Steptoe, A. (2012). Early-life stress and recurrent psychological distress over the lifecourse predict divergent cortisol reactivity patterns in adulthood. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(11), 1755–1768. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.03.010
Guh, D. P., Zhang, W., Bansback, N., Amarsi, Z., Birmingham, C. L., & Anis, A. H. (2009). The incidence of co-morbidities related to obesity and overweight: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health, 9(1), 88. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-9-88
Hardy, R., Lawlor, D. A., & Kuh, D. (2015). A life course approach to cardiovascular aging. Future Cardiology, 11(1), 101–113. https://doi.org/10.2217/fca.14.67
Heaney, J. L. J., Ginty, A. T., Carroll, D., & Phillips, A. C. (2011). Preliminary evidence that exercise dependence is associated with blunted cardiac and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 79(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2010.11.010
Heim, C., Newport, D. J., Heit, S., Graham, Y. P., Wilcox, M. M., Bonsall, R., Miller, A. H., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2000). Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual and physical abuse in childhood. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, 592–597.
Heleniak, C., McLaughlin, K. A., Ormel, J., & Riese, H. (2016). Cardiovascular reactivity as a mechanism linking child trauma to adolescent psychopathology. Biological Psychology, 120, 108–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2016.08.007
Jones, A., McMillan, M. R., Jones, R. W., Kowalik, G. T., Steeden, J. A., Deanfield, J. E., Pruessner, J. C., Taylor, A. M., & Muthurangu, V. (2012). Adiposity is associated with blunted cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and cognitive responses to acute mental stress. PLoS One, 7(6), e39143. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039143
Kamarck, T. W., Everson, S. A., Kaplan, G. A., Manuck, S. B., Jennings, J. R., Salonen, R., & Salonen, J. T. (1997). Exaggerated blood pressure responses during mental stress are associated with enhanced carotid atherosclerosis in middle-aged Finnish men: findings from the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Study. Circulation, 96(11), 3842–3848.
Khan, U. I., Wang, D., Thurston, R. C., Sowers, M., Sutton-Tyrrell, K., Matthews, K. A., Barinas-Mitchell, E., & Wildman, R. P. (2011). Burden of subclinical cardiovascular disease in “metabolically benign” and “at-risk” overweight and obese women: the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Atherosclerosis, 217(1), 179–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.01.007
Lehman, B. J., Taylor, S. E., Kiefe, C. I., & Seeman, T. E. (2005). Relation of childhood socioeconomic status and family environment to adult metabolic functioning in the CARDIA study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67(6), 846–854. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000188443.48405.eb
Li, M., D’Arcy, C., & Meng, X. (2016). Maltreatment in childhood substantially increases the risk of adult depression and anxiety in prospective cohort studies: systematic review, meta-analysis, and proportional attributable fractions. Psychological Medicine, 46(04), 717–730. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291715002743
Liu, M.-Y., Li, N., Li, W. A., & Khan, H. (2017). Association between psychosocial stress and hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurological Research, 39(6), 573–580. https://doi.org/10.1080/01616412.2017.1317904
Lovallo, W. R. (2006). Cortisol secretion patterns in addiction and addiction risk. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 59(3), 195–202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2005.10.007
Lovallo, W. R. (2013). Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: Implications for health behaviors. Int J Psychophysiol, 90(1), 8–16. https://doi.org/S0167-8760(12)00622-8 [pii] 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2012.10.006
Lovallo, W. R., Enoch, M. A., Acheson, A., Cohoon, A. J., Sorocco, K. H., Hodgkinson, C. A., Vincent, A. S., & Goldman, D. (2016). Early-Life Adversity Interacts with FKBP5 Genotypes: Altered Working Memory and Cardiac Stress Reactivity in the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project. Neuropsychopharmacology, 41(7), 1724–1732. https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2015.347
Lovallo, W. R., Farag, N. H., Sorocco, K. H., Cohoon, A. J., & Vincent, A. S. (2012). Lifetime adversity leads to blunted stress axis reactivity: studies from the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project. Biol Psychiatry, 71(4), 344–349. https://doi.org/S0006-3223(11)00999-1 [pii] 10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.10.018
Manuck, S. B. (1994). Cardiovascular reactivity in cardiovascular disease: once more unto the breach. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 1, 4–31.
McLaughlin, K. A., Conron, K. J., Koenen, K. C., & Gilman, S. E. (2010). Childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and risk of past-year psychiatric disorder: a test of the stress sensitization hypothesis in a population-based sample of adults. Psychological Medicine, 40(10), 1647–1658. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291709992121
Miller, G. E., Chen, E., & Parker, K. J. (2011). Psychological Stress in Childhood and Susceptibility to the Chronic Diseases of Aging: Moving Toward a Model of Behavioral and Biological Mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 137(6), 959–997. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024768
Moss, H. B., Vanyukov, M., Yao, J. K., & Kirillova, G. P. (1999). Salivary cortisol responses in prepubertal boys: The effects of parental substance abuse and association with drug use behavior during adolescence. Biological Psychiatry, 45(10), 1293–1299. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223(98)00216-9
Panknin, T. L., Dickensheets, S. L., Nixon, S. J., & Lovallo, W. R. (2002). Attenuated heart rate responses to public speaking in individuals with alcohol dependence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 26(6), 841–847.
Paris, J. J., Franco, C., Sodano, R., Frye, C. A., & Wulfert, E. (2010). Gambling pathology is associated with dampened cortisol response among men and women. Physiol Behav, 99(2), 230–233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2009.04.002
Phillips, A. C., Carroll, D., Ring, C., Sweeting, H., & West, P. (2005). Life events and acute cardiovascular reactions to mental stress: A cohort study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67(3). https://doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000160464.63264.5d
Phillips, A. C., Der, G., & Carroll, D. (2009). Self-reported health and cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress in a large community sample: cross-sectional and prospective associations. Psychophysiology, 46(5), 1020–1027. https://doi.org/PSYP843 [pii] 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2009.00843.x
Phillips, A. C., Der, G., Hunt, K., & Carroll, D. (2009). Haemodynamic reactions to acute psychological stress and smoking status in a large community sample. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 73(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2009.04.005
Phillips, A. C., Ginty, A. T., & Hughes, B. M. (2013). The other side of the coin: Blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity are associated with negative health outcomes. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 90(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2013.02.002
Phillips, A. C., & Hughes, B. M. (2011a). Introductory paper: Cardiovascular reactivity at a crossroads: where are we now? Biol Psychol, 86(2), 95–97. https://doi.org/S0301-0511(10)00075-X [pii] 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2010.03.003
Phillips, A. C., & Hughes, B. M. (2011b). Introductory paper: Cardiovascular reactivity at a crossroads: Where are we now? Biological Psychology, 86(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2010.03.003
Phillips, A. C., Hunt, K., Der, G., & Carroll, D. (2011). Blunted cardiac reactions to acute psychological stress predict symptoms of depression five years later: Evidence from a large community study. Psychophysiology, 48(1). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2010.01045.x
Phillips, A. C., Roseboom, T. J., Carroll, D., & De Rooij, S. R. (2012). Cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress and adiposity: Cross-sectional and prospective associations in the dutch famine birth cohort study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 74(7). https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e31825e3b91
Rottenberg, J., Chambers, A. S., Allen, J. J., & Manber, R. (2007). Cardiac vagal control in the severity and course of depression: the importance of symptomatic heterogeneity. J Affect Disord, 103(1–3), 173–179. https://doi.org/S0165-0327(07)00048-1 [pii] 10.1016/j.jad.2007.01.028
Salomon, K., Bylsma, L. M., White, K. E., Panaite, V., & Rottenberg, J. (n.d.). Is Blunted Cardiovascular Reactivity in Depression Mood-State Dependent? A Comparison of Major Depressive Disorder, Remitted Depression and Healthy Controls. International Journal of Psychophysiology.
Salomon, K., Bylsma, L. M., White, K. E., Panaite, V., & Rottenberg, J. (2013). Is blunted cardiovascular reactivity in depression mood-state dependent? A comparison of major depressive disorder remitted depression and healthy controls. Int J Psychophysiol, 90(1), 50–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2013.05.018
Salomon, K., Clift, A., Karlsdottir, M., & Rottenberg, J. (2009). Major depressive disorder is associated with attenuated cardiovascular reactivity and impaired recovery among those free of cardiovascular disease. Health Psychol, 28(2), 157–165. https://doi.org/2009-03297-003 [pii] 10.1037/a0013001
Schwerdtfeger, A., & Rosenkaimer, A. K. (2011). Depressive symptoms and attenuated physiological reactivity to laboratory stressors. Biol Psychol, 87(3), 430–438. https://doi.org/S0301-0511(11)00144-X [pii] 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.05.009
Sherwood, A., Turner, J. R., Light, K. C., & Blumenthal, J. A. (1990). Temporal stability of the hemodynamics of cardiovascular reactivity. Int J Psychophysiol, 10(1), 95–98.
Slagter, S. N., van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J. V., Vonk, J. M., Boezen, H. M., Dullaart, R. P. F., Kobold, A. C. Muller., Feskens, E. J. M., van Beek, A. P., van der Klauw, M. M., Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R., & Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R. (2014). Combined Effects of Smoking and Alcohol on Metabolic Syndrome: The LifeLines Cohort Study. PLoS ONE, 9(4), e96406. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096406
Slopen, N., Kubzansky, L. D., McLaughlin, K. A., & Koenen, K. C. (2013). Childhood adversity and inflammatory processes in youth: a prospective study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38(2), 188–200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.05.013
Sorocco, K. H., Lovallo, W. R., Vincent, A. S., & Collins, F. L. (2006). Blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis responsivity to stress in persons with a family history of alcoholism. Int J Psychophysiol, 59(3), 210–217.
Souza, G. G., Mendonca-de-Souza, A. C., Duarte, A. F., Fischer, N. L., Souza, W. F., Coutinho, E. S., Figueira, I., & Volchan, E. (2015). Blunted cardiac reactivity to psychological stress associated with higher trait anxiety: a study in peacekeepers. BMC Neurosci, 16, 81. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12868-015-0216-9
Thompson, R., Lewis, T., Neilson, E. C., English, D. J., Litrownik, A. J., Margolis, B., Proctor, L., & Dubowitz, H. (2017). Child Maltreatment and Risky Sexual Behavior. Child Maltreatment, 22(1), 69–78. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559516674595
Treiber, F. A., Kamarck, T., Schneiderman, N., Sheffield, D., Kapuku, G., & Taylor, T. (2003). Cardiovascular reactivity and development of preclinical and clinical disease states. Psychosom Med, 65, 46–62.
Van der Kooy, K., van Hout, H., Marwijk, H., Marten, H., Stehouwer, C., & Beekman, A. (2007). Depression and the risk for cardiovascular diseases: systematic review and meta analysis. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22(7), 613–626. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.1723
Wardle, J., Chida, Y., Gibson, E. L., Whitaker, K. L., & Steptoe, A. (2011). Stress and Adiposity: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies. Obesity, 19(4), 771–778. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2010.241
Winning, A., Glymour, M. M., McCormick, M. C., Gilsanz, P., & Kubzansky, L. D. (2015). Psychological Distress Across the Life Course and Cardiometabolic Risk. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 66(14), 1577–1586. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2015.08.021
Wu, T., Snieder, H., & de Geus, E. (2010). Genetic influences on cardiovascular stress reactivity. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 35(1), 58–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.12.001
York, K. M., Hassan, M., Li, Q., Li, H., Fillingim, R. B., & Sheps, D. S. (2007). Coronary artery disease and depression: patients with more depressive symptoms have lower cardiovascular reactivity during laboratory-induced mental stress. Psychosom Med, 69(6), 521–528.
Yu, M., Zhang, X., Lu, F., & Fang, L. (2015). Depression and Risk for Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 39(4), 266–272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjd.2014.11.006


How good is research at University of Stirling in Sport and Exercise Sciences, Leisure and Tourism?


Research output data provided by the Research Excellence Framework (REF)

Click here to see the results for all UK universities