Hate crimes can traumatise individuals, stigmatise communities and divide societies. Online hate is particularly pernicious because it can reach and affect potentially millions of victims with just one comment, tweet, or post. Yet, online hate is notoriously under-reported and, compared to offline incidents, relatively little is known about its prevalence or its impacts.
Drawing on social psychological theories, this project aims to increase understanding of the impacts of online hate, specifically in relation to racist and misogynistic incidents online. Racist hate crimes are the most frequently reported type of hate crime recorded by the police in England and Wales. Recent research, however, has suggested that using such a broad categorisation may overlook important differences within particular groups. Notably, the literature shows that women of minority groups (e.g., Black women, Asian women) may be more likely to be targeted than their male counterparts. This interplay of misogyny and racism is not only overlooked by official statistics, there is scant psychological research into the impacts of the interaction of these two types of hate. However, understanding who is most likely to be targeted and most likely to be affected is crucial for helping to prevent hate crimes and for providing support to those most in need. Furthermore, as the Law Commission is currently reviewing hate crime legislation, this project is well situated to inform the debate of whether or not to designate misogyny as a specific type of hate crime.
In brief, then, the project will use quantitative methodologies to explore the following questions:
• What is the prevalence of racist hate, misogynistic hate, and racist-misogynistic hate online?
• What are the emotional, attitudinal and behavioural impacts of such online hate?
• Does viewing hate crime through an intersectional lens help to better understand the impacts of online hate?
Eligibility and How to Apply:
Please note eligibility requirement:
• Academic excellence of the proposed student i.e. 2:1 (or equivalent GPA from non-UK universities [preference for 1st class honours]); or a Masters (preference for Merit or above); or APEL evidence of substantial practitioner achievement.
• Appropriate IELTS score, if required.
• Applicants cannot apply for this funding if currently engaged in Doctoral study at Northumbria or elsewhere.
For further details of how to apply, entry requirements and the application form, see https://www.northumbria.ac.uk/research/postgraduate-research-degrees/how-to-apply/
Please note: Applications that do not include a research proposal of approximately 1,000 words (not a copy of the advert), or that do not include the advert reference (e.g. RDF20/…) will not be considered.
Deadline for applications: Friday 24 January 2020
Start Date: 1 October 2020
Northumbria University takes pride in, and values, the quality and diversity of our staff. We welcome applications from all members of the community. The University holds an Athena SWAN Bronze award in recognition of our commitment to improving employment practices for the advancement of gender equality.
Walters, M. A., Paterson J. L., McDonnell, L., & Brown, R. (in press). Group Identity, empathy and shared suffering: understanding the “community” impacts of anti-LGBT and Islamophobic hate crimes. International Review of Victimology.
Paterson, J. L., Brown, R., & Walters, M. A. (2019). The short and longer term impacts of hate crimes experienced directly, indirectly and through the media. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 45(7), 994- 1010. Doi:10.1177/0146167218802835.
Paterson, J. L., Brown, R., & Walters, M. A. (2019). Feeling for and as a group member: understanding LGBT victimisation via group-based empathy and intergroup emotions. British Journal of Social Psychology. DOI: 10.1111/bjso.12269
Paterson, J. L., Walters, M. A., & Brown, R. (2019). Your pain is my pain. Examining the community impacts of Islamophobic hate crimes. In I. Zempi & I. Awan (Eds.), Routledge International Handbook of Islamophobia, London: Routledge.
Paterson, J. L., Brown, R., & Walters, M. A. (2018). Understanding victim group responses to hate crime: shared identities, perceived similarity and intergroup emotions. Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 25(2), 163-178. doi:10.4473/TPM25.2.1.
Walters, M.A., Paterson, J. L., Brown, R. & McDonnell, L. (2017). Hate crimes against transgender people: assessing the impacts on emotions, behaviors, and attitudes towards criminal justice agencies. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260517715026