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The Significance of Macroalgal Detritus for Marine Food Webs and Blue-Carbon Sequestration


Project Description

Marine plants draw down CO2, and in a world of rising atmospheric CO2 levels carbon sinks in vegetated coastal ecosystems can sequester CO2 on geological time scales and are now referred to as ‘Blue Carbon’. Marine macroalgae (MA) are highly productive macrophytes that currently cover approximately 3.5 million km2 of sublittoral seabed and provide 1521 Tg C yr-1 of net primary production globally. Nevertheless, MA have largely been excluded from estimates of blue carbon sequestration because they predominantly grow on hard substrates, which prevent the accumulation of detritus-rich sediments. But while MA carbon (CMA) cannot accumulate within the source ecosystem, it has been estimated that up to 82% of CMA is exported from the source ecosystem to seabed habitats at greater depths, providing a significant carbon subsidy to marine seabed ecosystems beyond the coastal zone and/or contributing to long-term carbon burial in the ocean seabed.

Shelf seas are known for their significant stocks of carbon, and marine fjords have recently been proposed as major C sinks of global significance, despite their low area coverage accounting for 11 % of global annual carbon sequestration. Per unit area, fjord organic carbon burial rates are one hundred times as large as the global ocean average, and fjord sediments contain twice as much organic carbon as biogeneous sediments underlying the upwelling regions of the ocean. Studies in Arctic fjords suggest that CMA contributes up to 60% to C sequestration which would render macroalgae a major contributor to blue carbon sequestration, and global biogeochemical cycles in general.

Both remineralisation and sequestration of CMA are poorly constrained, however, and the actual importance of MA detritus, and hence carbon derived from macroalgae, as a major ecosystem service to deep allochthonous (sink) benthic biota and sediments still needs to be addressed in a quantitative, geographically well-constrained investigation.

This project will quantify the contribution of MA carbon to C sequestration and as food subsidy to benthic fauna in Scottish fjords through a combination of camera surveys, sediment coring and analysis, stable isotope analysis and isotope tracing experiments. Following the methodology of Smeaton et al. (2017), the project will deliver a predictive (first-order) assessment of the MA carbon subsidy into sea loch sediments.

Climate change is a global issue, and improved understanding and management of Blue Carbon ecosystems is important for climate mitigation action, and directly relevant to UN Sustainable Development Goals 3, 13 and 14. Close collaboration with the Scottish Blue Carbon Forum will facilitate quick translation into national climate mitigation and adaptation policy.

In addition to SUPER specific training events, the candidate will be trained in a wide range of field and laboratory techniques, including the design and conduction of novel isotope tracing experiments, food web modelling and GIS. It is envisaged that the student will also spend some time in the laboratory of our external collaborator Dr. Inka Bartsch at AWI Bremerhaven.

Funding Notes

This project is funded by the SUPER-DTP and is available to UK/EU nationals who meet the RCUK eligibility criteria.
The studentship provides funding for tuition fees, stipend and a research training and support grant- subject to eligibility.

Candidates should have (or expect to achieve) a minimum of a 2.1 Honours degree in a relevant subject.

APPLICATION PROCEDURE:

• Apply for Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Marine Biology
• State name of the lead supervisor as ‘Name of Proposed Supervisor’ on application
• State ‘SUPER DTP’ as Intended Source of Funding
• Select the ‘Visit Website’ to apply now

References

Macreadie PI et al (2019). The future of Blue Carbon science. Nature communications. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-11693-w

Krause-Jensen D.et al. (2018). Sequestration of macroalgal carbon: The elephant in the Blue Carbon room. Biology Letters. DOI: 14. 20180236. 10.1098/rsbl.2018.0236.

Smeaton C et al. (2017). Scotland's forgotten carbon: a national assessment of mid-latitude fjord sedimentary carbon stocks. Biogeosciences, 14, 5663–5674. DOI: 10.5194/bg-14-5663-2017

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