The overuse and misuse of antibiotics in primary care is an increasing national and global concern due to the increasing risk of antimicrobial resistance (when bacteria becomes resistant to treatments leading to increased risks of illness lasting longer, increased symptom severity and even death). In the UK, the NHS has invested in improvement via public health campaigns, clinical guidelines for treatment of common infections and local monitoring/feedback on numbers of antibiotics prescribed. In primary care, most of the research-to-date has focussed on General Practitioners prescribing during usual surgery hours rather than prescribing out-of-hours (OoH), despite the fact that many different prescribing professionals work OoH, and evidence that rates of antibiotic prescribing are increasing in this setting. The proposed PhD will be based on quantitative (audit and clinical records) and qualitative data (recorded telephone calls, primary care centre visits and home visits) to be collected in a new study of antibiotic prescribing OoH between prescribers (GPs, nurses and other emergency care practitioners) and patients (or parents / carers). The research aims and objectives and the methodological approach will be decided by the candidate under guidance from the supervisory team. We would particularly welcome candidates with an interest and some experience in using conversation analytic methods.