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Visible Light and Optical Camera Communications for Indoor Localizations (Advert Reference: RDF18/MPE/GHASSEMLOOY)

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  • Full or part time
    Prof Z Ghassemlooy
  • Application Deadline
    No more applications being accepted
  • Competition Funded PhD Project (Students Worldwide)
    Competition Funded PhD Project (Students Worldwide)

Project Description

We are witnessing a tremendous increase in the Internet data traffic, with the monthly mobile and fixed data traffic are predicted to reach 30.5 and 140 Exabytes, respectively, by 2020 [1]. The critical question is how the telecommunication infrastructure can deal with this significant increase of data rates while keeping energy consumption, cost, and complexity in a reasonable level. Squeezing more out of the radio frequency (RF) technologies (4G, 5G or Wi-Fi) is one option available, but this solution is still based on the limited frequency resource and bandwidth (in the order of GHz), and hence is not the optimum option. Recently, we have seen a growing interest on the potential use of visible light communications (VLC), which has tremendous bandwidth in the order of 100 THz. The use of VLC offers new opportunities by simply utilizing the existing installed white light emitting diodes (LED) for data transmission??. VLC can be used in a number of applications including wireless local, personal, and body area networks (WLAN, WPAN, and WBANs), indoor localization and navigation (where global positioning system (GPS) is not available), underground and underwater networks [2,3]. In this research project the VLC technology employing camera communications will be investigated for indoor localization in which the light sources are spatially separated by a camera for extracting the coordinate data. The receiver’s position is calculated from the geometrical relations of the light source images created on the sensor of the camera without angular measurement. The work package of the project involves (i) development and characterization of a realistic indoor VLC channel model; (ii) design and optimize localization technique based on lighting systems; (iii) adopting optical camera communications for localization and low data rate communications; (iv) development of a comprehensive experimental testbed for evaluation, assessment and optimization of low-complexity and high-accuracy for the proposed indoor VLC based localization.

Eligibility and How to Apply:

Please note eligibility requirement:
• Academic excellence of the proposed student i.e. 2:1 (or equivalent GPA from non-UK universities [preference for 1st class honours]); or a Masters (preference for Merit or above); or APEL evidence of substantial practitioner achievement.
• Appropriate IELTS score, if required.
• Applicants cannot apply for this funding if currently engaged in Doctoral study at Northumbria or elsewhere.

For further details of how to apply, entry requirements and the application form, see

Please note: Applications that do not include a research proposal of approximately 1,000 words (not a copy of the advert), or that do not include the advert reference (e.g. RDF18/…) will not be considered.

Deadline for applications: 28 January 2018

Start Date: 1 October 2018

Northumbria University takes pride in, and values, the quality and diversity of our staff. We welcome applications from all members of the community. The University holds an Athena SWAN Bronze award in recognition of our commitment to improving employment practices for the advancement of gender equality and is a member of the Euraxess network, which delivers information and support to professional researchers.

Enquiries regarding this studentship should be made to: Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Email: [Email Address Removed]

Tel: 0191 2274902

Funding Notes

The studentship includes a full stipend, paid for three years at RCUK rates (for 2017/18, this is £14,553 pa) and fees.


Cisco, Cisco visual networking index: Global mobile data traffic forecast update, 2010–2015, Feb.1, 2011vailable:

Yiguang Wang, et al., "8-Gb/s RGBY LED-Based WDM VLC System Employing High-Order CAP Modulation and Hybrid Post Equalizer," Photonics J., IEEE, vol. 7, 7904507, 2015.

Pengfei Luo, et al. "Experimental Demonstration of a 1024-QAM Optical Camera Communication System." IEEE Photonics Techn. Letters, vol. 28pp. 139-142, 2015

Pergoloni, S., Mohamadi, Z., Vegni, A. M., Ghassemlooy, Z., and Biagi, M.: "Metameric indoor localization schemes using visible lights," in Journal of Lightwave Technology , 35 (14), pp. 2933-2942, doi: 10.1109/JLT.2017.2706527

Lin, B., Ghassemlooy, Z., Lin, C., Tang, X., Li, Y., and Zhang, S.: “An indoor visible light positioning system based on optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 29 (7), pp. 579-582, Feb. 2017.

Lin, B, Tang, X., Ghassemlooy, Z., Lin. C., and Li, Y.: "Experimental Demonstration of an Indoor VLC Positioning System Based on OFDMA," in IEEE Photonics Journal, 9 (2), pp. 1-9, April 2017. doi: 10.1109/JPHOT.2017.2672038.

Lin, B., Ye, W., Tang, X. and Ghassemlooy, Z.: “Experimental demonstration of interleave division multiple access visible light communication,” Optical Engineering, 56 (5). 056101. ISSN 0091-3286

Nazhan, S., and Ghassemlooy, Z.: "Polarization switching dependence of VCSEL on variable polarization optical feedback," in IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1-7, Aug. 2017. doi: 10.1109/JQE.2017.2718550

Ghassemlooy, Z., Luo, P., and Zvanovec, S.: Optical Camera Communications, Chapter 25, pp. 547-568, Optical Wireless Communications – An Emerging Technology, Eds. Uysal, M., Capsoni, C., Ghassemlooy, Z., Boucouvalas, A. C., and Udvary E. G Springer, 2016. ISBN: 978-3-319-30200-3

Boubezari, R., Le Minh, H., Ghassemlooy, Z., and Bouridane, A.: "Smartphone camera based visible light communication," J. of Lightwave Technology, vol. 34, no. 17, pp. 4121-4127, Sept.1, 1 2016. doi: 10.1109/JLT.2016.2590880.

Mousa, F K., Le-Minh, H., Ghassemlooy, Z., et al; “Indoor localization system utilizing two visible light emitting diodes,” Optical Eng. 0001; 55 (11), pp. 116114., 29 Nov. 2016, doi:10.1117/1.OE.55.11.116114.

Abu-Almaalie, Z., Ghassemlooy, Z., Bhatnagar, M. R., Le-Minh, H., Aslam, N., Liaw, S-K., Lee, I. E.: “Investigation on iterative multiuser detection physical layer network coding in two-way relay free-space optical links with turbulences and pointing errors,” Applied Optics, 55 (33), pp. 9396-9406, 2016,

Lin, B., Tang, X., Ghassemlooy, Z., Fang, X., Lin, C., Li, Y., and Zhang, S.: "Experimental demonstration of OFDM/OQAM transmission for visible light communications," IEEE Photonics Journal, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1-10, Oct. 2016. doi: 10.1109/JPHOT.2016.2605464.

Luo, P., Zhang, M., Ghassemlooy, Z., Le Minh, H., Tsai, H., Tang, X., Png, L. C., and Han, D.: “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-QAM optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 28 (2), pp. 139-142, 10 Oct. 2016, DOI: 10.1109/LPT.2015.2487544

Ghassemlooy, Z., Arnon, S., Uysal, M., Xu, Z., and Cheng, J.: “Emerging Optical Wireless Communications–Advances and Challenges,” Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on, 33 (9), pp. 1738 - 1749, 2015

Luo, P., Zhang, M., Ghassemlooy, Z., Le Minh, H., Tsai, H., Tang, X., Png, L. C., and Han, D.: “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J., 7 (5), article 7904212, Oct. 2015

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