Inadequate pollination is a major reason for poor and erratic avocado yields. The honey bee serves as the principle avocado pollinator, but the avocado bloom is not attractive to them. Other insects including Australian native bees or flies can be alternative avocado pollinators, but very limited research has been done. Here we propose to utilize field observation, bio-assay and molecular biology techniques to identify the WA insect species that are best candidates as avocado pollinators. This PhD project will improve our understanding of Australian avocado pollinators and significantly strengthen Australian horticulture industry.