Dr Jo Browse, Department of Geography, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter
Dr Mingxi Yang, Plymouth Marine Laboratory
Dr Katy Sheen, Department of Geography, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter
Location: University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE
This project is one of a number that are in competition for funding from the NERC GW4+ Doctoral Training Partnership (GW4+ DTP). The GW4+ DTP consists of the GW4 Alliance of research-intensive universities: the University of Bath, University of Bristol, Cardiff University and the University of Exeter plus five unique and prestigious Research Organisation partners: British Antarctic Survey, British Geological Survey, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, the Natural History Museum and Plymouth Marine Laboratory. The partnership aims to provide a broad training in the Earth, Environmental and Life sciences, designed to train tomorrow’s leaders in scientific research, business, technology and policy-making. For further details about the programme please see http://nercgw4plus.ac.uk/
For eligible successful applicants, the studentships comprises:
- An stipend for 3.5 years (currently £15,009 p.a. for 2019/20) in line with UK Research and Innovation rates
- Payment of university tuition fees;
- A research budget of £11,000 for an international conference, lab, field and research expenses;
- A training budget of £3,250 for specialist training courses and expenses.
- Travel and accommodation is covered for all compulsory DTP cohort events.
- No course fees for courses run by the DTP
We are currently advertising projects for a total of 10 studentships at the University of Exeter
The Arctic is currently warming at rate 3 times the global average. In response to the rapid ice-loss in the Arctic, ship traffic has drastically increased. Shipping produces ~2% of anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emissions (Lack et al. 2009), as well as gaseous pollutants, including 5-10% of anthropogenic SO2 (Eyring et al. 2005; Z. Klimont, Smith, and Cofala 2013). Currently, shipping emissions are estimated to have an overall cooling effect driven by SO2 derived sulphate aerosol (Berntsen and Fuglestvedt 2008; Unger et al. 2010). However, with the expectation of significant SO2 reductions as a result of new international regulations in 2020, the highly light absorbing BC from shipping (which warms the atmosphere and will likely increase [Fig 1]) is predicted to become a more important climate driver, particularly within the Arctic (Corbett et al. 2010). BC from ships (emitted locally and transported from the mid-latitudes (Browse et al. 2013)) is deposited on ice/snow surfaces, reducing albedo and enhancing Arctic warming far in excess of atmospheric forcing (Flanner et al. 2007; Sand et al. 2016). Studies of present day and future climate impacts of Arctic shipping are inconclusive, predicting both cooling and warming effects (i.e. Dalsøren et al. 2013; Marelle et al. 2016), due to the uncertainty in the representation of Arctic BC in global models (Browse et al. 2013; Sand et al. 2017). Thus, there is an urgent need to constrain the effects of ship emitted BC in climate models.
Project Aims and Methods
Two of the most important uncertainties in our assessment of shipping black carbon (BC) impacts are: (1) the uncertainties in current and projected shipping emissions (Fig. 1) (Corbett et al. 2010) and (2) a lack of understanding of the processes controlling the processing of BC in the atmosphere (Arnold et al. 2016; Browse et al. 2012). In this project the student will design observations to evaluate and develop numerical models to investigate the role of ship-emitted black carbon on North Atlantic and Arctic climate. Models typically use simplistic representations of BC processes, which are poorly evaluated in marine and polar environments. In this project the student will develop observations in the upcoming ACRUISE and SEANA (https://gtr.ukri.org/projects?ref=NE%2FS00579X%2F1
) campaigns in addition to designing and implementing observations at Penlee Point in Cornwall to investigate the impact of shipping in different marine environments. These new observations will be used to improve representations of key processes in BC cycling and estimates of Arctic BC climate forcing in the met office unified model (Walters et al. 2017).
References / Background reading list
Arnold, SR et al. 2016. “Arctic Air Pollution: Challenges and Opportunities for the next Decade.” Elementa: 1–17.
Berntsen, Terje, and Jan Fuglestvedt. 2008. “Global Temperature Responses to Current Emissions from the Transport Sectors.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
Browse, J et al. 2012. “The Scavenging Processes Controlling the Seasonal Cycle in Arctic Sulphate and Black Carbon Aerosol.” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12: 6775–98.
Browse, J, K S Carslaw, A Schmidt, and J J Corbett. 2013. “Impact of Future Arctic Shipping on High-Latitude Black Carbon Deposition.” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40: 4459–63.
Corbett, J. J. et al. 2010. “Arctic Shipping Emissions Inventories and Future Scenarios.” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10(19): 9689–9704.
Dalsøren, S. B. et al. 2013. “Environmental Impacts of Shipping in 2030 with a Particular Focus on the Arctic Region.” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics.
Eyring, V., H. W. Köhler, J. Van Aardenne, and A. Lauer. 2005. “Emissions from International Shipping: 1. The Last 50 Years.” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres.
Flanner, M G, C S Zender, J T Randerson, and P J Rasch. 2007. “Present-Day Climate Forcing and Response from Black Carbon in Snow.” J.Geophys. Res 112(D11).
Klimont, Z., S. J. Smith, and J. Cofala. 2013. “The Last Decade of Global Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide: 2000-2011 Emissions.” Environmental Research Letters.
Klimont, Zbigniew et al. 2017. “Global Anthropogenic Emissions of Particulate Matter Including Black Carbon.” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17(14): 8681–8723.
Lack, D et al. 2009. “Light Absorbing Carbon Emissions from Commercial Shipping.” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(L13815).
Marelle, Louis et al. 2016. “Air Quality and Radiative Impacts of Arctic Shipping Emissions in the Summertime in Northern Norway: From the Local to the Regional Scale.” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16(4): 2359–79.
Sand, M. et al. 2016. “Response of Arctic Temperature to Changes in Emissions of Short-Lived Climate Forcers.” Nature Climate Change 6(3): 286–89.
Sand, M et al. 2017. “Aerosols at the Poles: An AeroCom Phase II Multi-Model Evaluation.” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 2017: 1–35. https://www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/acp-2016-1120/.
Unger, N et al. 2010. “Attribution of Climate Forcing to Economic Sectors.” PNAS 107(8): 3382–87.
Walters, D et al. 2017. “The Met Office Unified Model Global Atmosphere 7.0/7.1 and JULES Global Land 7.0 Configurations.” Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss. 2017: 1–78. https://www.geosci-model-dev-discuss.net/gmd-2017-291/.
Winther, Morten et al. 2014. “Emission Inventories for Ships in the Arctic Based on Satellite Sampled AIS Data.” Atmospheric Environment 91: 1–14.