The challenge of managing and reducing domestic waste is a growing sustainability problem for governments and Local Authorities. Recycling rates are increasing, but this is not enough to address the environmental challenges faced by our throwaway material culture.
The Gaia hypothesis (Lovelock & Margulis 1974) proposes that organisms have a significant effect on the physical and chemical environment on Earth, and that feedback loops between organisms and the environment have evolved that stabilize the environment.
The literature on social transformations has blossomed in the last decade. But which actors have the ‘agency’ (Brown, 2013) to shape their direction and speed (Meadowcroft 2009)? In the UK, one body which performs this role is the Committee on Climate Change (CCC).
Practices of democratic governance and decision-making have been institutionalised in environmental policy, yet are constantly evolving and travelling, and new democratic practices are continually being developed.
‘Biodiversity offsets’ are a means of delivering a form of compensation for biodiversity loss so that there is an overall outcome of ‘no net loss’ from development (Rajvanshi et al., 2011, Brownlie et al., 2013).