Marine Protected Area designation and management has significantly advanced over the past decade in the UK. In response to a range of EU, UK and devolved drivers, considerable progress has been made over the spatial protection of marine biodiversity in the inshore and offshore environment.
Mountain glacier surface mass balance responds to changes in climate. The glacier equilibrium line altitude (ELA), the elevation at which net accumulation equals net ablation, has been empirically linked to both precipitation and temperature.
Ice streams are the arteries which drain large quantities of ice from the interior of ice sheets to the ice margin. From both palaeo and present they are known to display dynamical behaviour in relation to ice flow velocity.
Mussels (bivalves of the family Mytilidae) are incredible animals with a long fossil history. For millions of years, populations of mussels have been able to withstand pounding waves by attaching themselves to the seafloor using threads that are one of the strongest materials found in nature.
Marine plankton respond rapidly to environmental change associated with climate change and also emissions of waste and pollutants, which may cause significant losses in biodiversity and impact ecosystem resilience.
How resilient are forests to fragmentation? How can we manage networks of fragmented forest patches to increase their resilience? These are critical ecological questions as almost all forests in temperate and tropical systems have undergone fragmentation or are undergoing fragmentation currently.