Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emission of pollutants. In a fuel cell, the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen produces water and electricity and as such provides a clean alternative to fossil fuels.
An ever-increasing number of people use nature for recreation and tourism across all ecoregions. Those activities now threaten the conservation of 5930 species and marine coastal regions are particularly affected (Lusseau & Mancini 2018).
Increasing demand for clean energy has led to significant research towards the development of energy-efficient and environment-friendly technological solutions of carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) which encompasses methods to remove CO2 from the flue gas and from the atmosphere, recycling the CO2 for utilization and safe storage options.
In many oil wells the natural energy associated with oil is not strong enough to cause flow into the production facilities. In such cases, some form of artificial lift should supplement natural energy.