Investigating the Effect of Inhibitors on the Formation, Growth and Breakdown Corrosion Scales [Sponsor: BP International Ltd; FULLY FUNDED]
This PhD is part of the EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Materials for Demanding Environments [M4DE CDT]; it is sponsored by BP International Ltd, and will commence September 2018.
Corrosion of metallic structural materials is an unfortunate and relentless problem that has plagued the oil & gas industry for decades and continues to have a massive impact on the global economics of production. In the North Sea it has been estimated that 60% of the maintenance budgets are directly due to pipeline corrosion as a result of multiphase flow and flow assurance issues. Although the oil & gas sector may be conceived as a declining industry, it should be pointed out that this is not the case in the EU with oil & gas companies generating more than €400bn to the economy each year. Given the on-going importance of the industry it is imperative to develop technologies to limit the expense of maintenance and loss of production time due localised corrosion events. In order to develop these technologies a more robust understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of corrosion scales, breakdown of these scales and subsequent localised attack and possible cracking in both sweet and sour pipeline environments is needed.
In this project the focus will be placed on investigating the effects of inhibitors on the formation, growth and breakdown of corrosion scales found in pipeline steels in CO2 rich environments. The main questions to be answer are whether corrosion scales form in oil & gas production water systems when there are inhibitor additions where the supply of Fe2+ ions could be restricted and if they do form, how do their morphologies and protective nature change compared to environments without inhibitor. To date, limited work has been performed on the effects of inhibitors on the corrosion kinetics associated with localised attack observed on scaled pipeline steels. The project will involve a combination of advanced electrochemical and x-ray techniques. The successful candidate will be expected to characterise the morphology and local chemistry of artificial pits grown under scales on both iron and carbon steels. The candidate would be expected to conduct in situ 2D and pencil pit electrodes utilising a combination both lab-based and synchrotron-based transmission x-ray tomography and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Results from these experiments will define corrosion kinetics and localised chemistry associated with the formation and growth of corrosion scales in the presence of inhibitors. They will also clarify the role of inhibitor to promote a ‘protective’ scale and whether areas of the electrode covered by a ‘non-protective’ scale would now dominate.
It should be noted that the student will be able to use the world-class x-ray imaging facility at the University of Manchester (i.e., MXIF) to perform experiments in situ in bespoke environmental chambers capable of simulating pipeline environments. The student will also have the opportunity to utilise the synchrotron based x-ray beamlines in Europe and the US for complimentary experiments to those performed in Manchester.
Characterisation of the corrosion scales both from an electrochemical and structural nature will be a key component in the project. Again the student will be able to utilise the University of Manchester’s world-class facilities which include suites of the latest electron microscopes and analytical equipment to develop mechanistic understanding of the degradation mechanism of this systems.
About BP International Ltd
BP is one of the world’s leading international oil and gas producers. They provide customers with fuel for transport, energy for heat and light, lubricants to keep engines moving, and the petrochemical products used to make everyday items as diverse as paints, clothes, and packaging. This PhD studentship will be part of the BP International Centre for Advanced Materials (BP-ICAM) community. BP-ICAM brings the full spectrum of academic knowledge under one umbrella, providing the opportunity for collaboration across disciplines. The problems are complex and require an interdisciplinary approach. The practical involvement of BP helps ensure that ICAM’s innovative research will deliver real-life applications and solutions.
Funding covers tuition fees and annual maintenance payments of £17,000 tax free.
Students with a first class/2.1 degree (or equivalent) in Engineering, Materials Science, Metallurgy, Physics, Chemistry or another aligned science or engineering subject are encouraged to apply. Applications will be reviewed as they are received until a candidate is selected; therefore candidates are encouraged to apply as soon as possible.
Funding is only available for UK / EU candidates.