PhD Study with a Disability, Chronic Illness or Learning Difficulty
PhD study whilst managing a disability, chronic illness or learning difficulty can be challenging. But you might be surprised how many people do so successfully. Or at how much support for disabled students is available from universities, funders and other sources.
This guide will help you if you’re considering a PhD, but worried that a pre-existing medical condition may make it more difficult.
It contains information on applying for a PhD with a disability and advice for managing the day to day undertaking of your research project.
Elsewhere in our guide to PhD study with a disability you can check your legal rights as a disabled PhD student. Or read some experiences and advice from other students who have studied a PhD with a disability or chronic illness.
Finally, we've also put together a guide to Disabled Students' Allowance (DSA) for PhD students.
Applying for a PhD with a disability or chronic illness
The first step in completing a PhD whilst managing a disability or illness is the applications process. Applying for a PhD with a disability may seem a little daunting. But your experience doesn’t necessarily have to be any different to that of another student.
You won't normally have to disclose a disability when applying for a PhD. It is also illegal for your university to discriminate against you on the basis of any disability you do disclose.
Informing your university of a disability - the benefits
Your university can be an important source of advice and assistance as you complete a PhD with a disability. Many institutions have previous experience of helping disabled students complete their degrees. Some will also have structures in place to help new applicants.
Informing your university of your condition when you apply will allow you to:
- Establish your legal rights - Disclosing a disability will invoke relevant legislation protecting you against discrimination. A university (or other institution) cannot be held to have unfairly treated someone on the basis of a disability it has not been made aware of.
- Access specific support structures - Many universities have specific support structures available to help their disabled students. These include specialist resources to help you manage the effects of your condition. For example, computer equipment and software designed to assist students with dyslexia or visual difficulties.
- Identify additional funding – A disability can make certain aspects of postgraduate study more expensive. You might therefore be entitled to additional financial support as a disabled student. Your university can help you identify and apply for this as you prepare for your studies.
- Protect your privacy – Some students have personal reasons for not wishing to reveal a disability or illness. Your university will respect this wish and will have policies and procedures in place to help protect your information. Telling your university about a disability will not make your condition public. It may even help you manage it privately.
What if I don’t want to inform my university of a disability?
Depending on your personal feelings and individual circumstances, you may not wish to inform your university of a disability or chronic illness. This is completely understandable (particularly if your condition is unlikely to have a significant impact on your studies).
In most cases you have no obligation to inform a university about a condition. And you can still access lots of other support networks without doing so.
Working with your supervisor
As the second-most important person in your PhD (after yourself!) your supervisor can be a great source of advice, understanding and support.
Of course, any successful supervisory relationship requires both parties to establish expectations and targets. This will be even more important if your disability or illness is likely to pose challenges during your research.
You don't have to inform your supervisor of a disability or illness. But doing so can help you establish a supportive working relationship. Their expectations can then take account of your condition and they can help you to progress in spite of it.
Establishing a supportive supervisory relationship as a disabled student
A good supervisor will do their best to support you and will be motivated to help you succeed in spite of your disability. You can help this process by discussing the possible effects of your condition in advance.
This will help you establish a working relationship that takes account of any extra challenges you may face during your PhD.
It can be helpful to discuss:
- Difficulties you might face as a disabled PhD student - You will know best what affect your condition has on your working arrangements (including its affect on your previous degrees). Your supervisor, on the other hand, will have greater experience of what is involved in the research process you are now embarking upon. Early discussion will help you both identify likely problems and establish strategies for overcoming them.
- Your specific needs as a disabled PhD student - You can also help your supervisor by identifying specific needs you have as a result of your disability. For example, you may find it hard to get to campus regularly or take longer to read written material. If so, your supervisor might be able to suggest alternative working arrangements.
- The timeline of your project and expectations for progress - Discussing the likely impact of your condition on your PhD will help you and your supervisor come up with a practical plan for your project. Your supervisor will then be able to monitor your progress more effectively and help your research stay on track.
- Expectations of you as a research student - It is common for PhD students to engage in other activities as part of their doctorates. These include presenting research at academic conferences or teaching undergraduates at their university. Such tasks are an important aspect of your development as a researcher. Discussion with your supervisor will help you identify any support you need to succeed in them.
Support from your supervisor as a disabled student
A helpful and encouraging supervisor can make a significant difference to your experience. Their support could include:
- Making more flexible supervision arrangements - Your supervisor may be able to offer alternative supervision arrangements if your disability makes it difficult to plan or attend face-to-face meetings (or if you have problems getting to your university campus). These could include communicating electronically or via telephone, or simply setting alternative times and venues for meetings.
- Providing accessible feedback - Your supervisor may be able to adopt alternative means of communication, if dyslexia or visual problems make it hard for you to read written feedback. These could include providing feedback in other forms (such as an audio recording). Or simply making more time to discuss work with you.
- Helping with drafts - If their time allows, your supervisor will normally be happy to read through drafts of material you are presenting or publishing. This can be particularly helpful if you have problems with dyslexia or similar conditions.
- Providing encouragement and acting as a mediator - Your supervisor will become familiar with the problems posed by your condition. They will be able to offer encouragement when you need it and support you in interactions with other students and academics who are less familiar with your circumstances.
Managing PhD research with a disability
As well as establishing a good relationship with your supervisor, it can be helpful to anticipate some of the challenges you yourself may face as a disabled PhD student. This way you can come up with strategies for managing them in advance.
The exact difficulties you face will depend on your circumstances. But you may wish to brainstorm likely issues and investigate possible solutions. This will allow you to go into your PhD with greater confidence and enthusiasm. You'll be ready to face the challenges it presents and come away with a qualification you can be incredibly proud of.
What follows is some advice for dealing with some of the common problems you might face as a disabled PhD student. You can find additional help and resources at the end of this guide.
Overcoming mobility and accessibility problems
A disability may make it harder for you to get to and from your university, or to access certain buildings on campus. Universities have a legal obligation to make their facilities as accessible as possible. There are also other ways in which you can overcome mobility or accessibility problems:
- Ask about disabled access for buildings and facilities - If you suffer from mobility problems, it may be a good idea to find out which buildings and facilities you are likely to use as a PhD student. You can then check their accessibility options. Many institutions will have a dedicated disability office providing this kind of information. Remember that universities usually have a legal responsibility to provide disabled access wherever possible.
- Find out if your library offers e-books or provides a delivery service - By its nature, a PhD research project will require you to access large amounts of library material. This can be a problem if you suffer from mobility problems that make repeated journeys difficult or expensive. But university libraries offer an increasing amount of material in an electronic format. Some also deliver physical books to distance learning students by post – find out if you can use this service as a disabled student.
- Inquire about alternative ways to access training materials - Though you won’t usually have scheduled classes as a PhD student, some institutions run useful training and key skills sessions. These help students develop as professional researchers. If you cannot physically attend them, you may be able to access related materials (or even lecture recordings) online.
Managing research and reading
Reading and analysing written material is a big part of PhD research in all subject areas. This can be difficult for students with disabilities such as dyslexia or visual impairment.
Discussing these difficulties with your supervisor in advance may help you come up with strategies for overcoming them. You can also establish realistic progress expectations that take account of the difficulties you have. The following are other ways in which you may be able to overcome difficulties with reading and writing as a disabled PhD student:
- Find out if specialist software or equipment is available to you - Because dyslexia and visual impairment are relatively common conditions, many universities will have resources available to help both undergraduate and postgraduate students. This might include computer equipment with assistive reading software.
- Consider using an e-reader – You may actually find that commercially available e-readers can help you manage reading with a lexical disability or visual impairment. Most devices will allow you to alter the size, shape and brightness of text to a format that you find easier to read. Some also include text-to-speech options. Not all academic resources will be available in a format suitable for these devices. But the range of electronically published academic books and journal articles is growing. If the cost of necessary equipment and materials is a problem, you may be able to qualify for extra financial support.
- Ask about extended loan periods at the library - University libraries may offer extensions on loan period for disabled students who require more time with resources. If your library does not advertise such a service, consider asking if it can make arrangements in your case.
- Practice presentations carefully and use visual cues - Giving a conference paper or other talk can be difficult if you struggle with reading, particularly if this causes you to become self-conscious. You may find it easier to structure presentations around visual material rather than reading from a written paper. Rehearsing presentations in advance can also make you more confident. Supervisors, fellow PhD students and significant others might be willing to provide audiences for practice presentations.
Managing writing and drafting
Once you’ve managed the challenge of reading and researching as a disabled PhD student you can move on to writing up your work. This will allow you to present your ideas to a wider audience - including academic experts in your field.
Some conditions can make organising and writing up your research more difficult. There are various ways you can anticipate and help compensate for these:
- Plan carefully - One of the simplest ways to help overcome difficulties with writing is to plan your work carefully in advance and allow yourself extra time to complete it. You may also find it easier to break large tasks (such as PhD chapters) down into smaller sections for writing. Planning can be difficult if conditions such as dyslexia affect your organisation skills. But there may be help and support available at your university. Your supervisor can also help you come up with a plan for your research and writing.
- Use alternative note-taking methods - Difficulties with writing can make it hard to take notes at academic conferences, or when discussing feedback at PhD supervisions. If you have access to a tablet or small laptop you could try typing notes. Or you may be able to record presentations or supervisions using a Dictaphone. Speakers will usually be happy with this, but it is polite to ask permission beforehand.
- Try different ways of mapping your thinking - If you find it hard to plan writing tasks using a text outline, try alternative methods. Some students find that visual charts of spider diagrams are a better way of representing their work. This could replace your plan, or simply provide a way of identifying the key points of your argument and its framework before you plan.
- Investigate support software for writing - As with reading, specialist software can sometimes help with writing problems caused by conditions such as dyslexia. Some word processors can provide advice on distinguishing between homophones (words that sound the same, but have different meanings and / or spellings). Others can make writing easier by removing unnecessary clutter from the screen. You may qualify for financial help to buy such software.
- Think of writing as a help rather than a hindrance - If dyslexia (or a similar condition) makes it harder for you to organise your thoughts, writing might actually assist with this process. By drafting out your ideas you may find it easier to articulate and reflect upon them. Regularly engaging in writing tasks may also help you overcome any reservations resulting from your disability by becoming more familiar with the writing experience. This can boost your confidence when it comes to preparing final drafts.
Relationships with other staff and students
Depending on the nature of your disability or illness you may find yourself feeling self-conscious or otherwise lacking confidence in interactions with other students and academics. This might be due to physical embarrassment or a sense of inadequacy in comparison with your peers.
Such feelings may seem natural, but it’s important that you try to find ways of overcoming them. As a PhD student your research and ideas are as valid as anyone else’s. If other students are aware of the fact that you are managing a condition alongside your PhD they will be the last to judge you for it.
PhD students of all people will respect someone for working hard to overcome challenges as part of their research.
The following approaches may help you manage personal interactions that are made more difficult by your condition or manage any social anxiety resulting from it:
- Investigate communication aids - If your disability leads to problems communicating, you may be able to find resources to assist you. These will vary greatly depending on the problems you experience, but a wide range of support is potentially available. If you have hearing difficulties, for example, you may be able to use audio induction loops (hearing aid systems commonly fitted in university teaching spaces). Alternatively, if you have difficulties presenting or speaking about your own ideas, you may find it easier to use more visual aids. You could also circulate printed notes on your key points in advance when attending workshops or seminars.
- Find student research groups or societies - Many university departments have their own research groups or societies for postgraduates. These are usually student-led and are very informal. Attending them can be a great way to get to know other PhD students at your institution and become more comfortable discussing your research.
- Find online research groups and communities - There are also many friendly academic communities online, centred around blogs and forums. These can be ideal if mobility or communication problems make it harder for you to attend physical workshops or discussion groups at your university. Try searching online for a group associated with your research area or asking your supervisor for suggestions. You can also ask for advice (and get to know other PhD students) through communities like the postgraduate forum.
- Remember your right to privacy - You do not have to disclose any disability or illness as a PhD student. Even if you have informed your supervisor and admissions staff, you have a right to privacy concerning other staff or students. If your condition isn’t generally known, don’t let it have an effect on your self-confidence. You have as much right to be studying for a PhD as anyone else. And the validity of your research and ideas has nothing to do with your personal circumstances.
Completing your PhD viva with a disability
All PhD programmes end with an oral examination, or ‘viva voce’. This is when a student discusses their work with an external examiner and ‘defends’ their conclusions. (For this reason, the viva voce is sometimes referred to as a ‘thesis defence’).
It goes without saying that this is a hugely important part of your PhD research experience. Any disability or illness should interfere with this process as little as possible.
Universities will understand this. They will do their best to make appropriate arrangements for your examination - allowing you to simply focus on the important thing: doing justice to your PhD thesis.
There are various ways in which you and your university can help limit the impact of a disability or illness on your viva:
- Discuss likely issues with your supervisor in advance - It can be helpful to sit down before your viva and discuss any issues you may have. Your supervisor can help with this process. They can advise on different aspects of the viva and help you communicate any special needs to your external examiner. In some cases your supervisor can also attend your viva. They cannot answer questions on your behalf. But their familiarity with your needs may help boost your confidence and prevent undue concern arising from your disability or illness.
- Brief your external examiner - You can brief your external examiner about the effects of your disability or illness in advance. This will allow them to take account of any special needs you may have as part of the examination process. Most will be very understanding and accommodating if you have difficulties communicating or need to briefly interrupt the examination due to fatigue or other problems. Their focus is upon what you have to say about your work and they will do their best to provide a scenario in which you can speak comfortably about your thesis.
- Find a suitable venue - Universities don’t usually have dedicated venues for viva examinations. Instead students (or their supervisors) simply book a suitable room. This means you can find a venue that is accessible and comfortable for you and which suits any other needs you may have, such as proximity to other facilities.
- Investigate existing policies concerning PhD vivas for disabled students - Many larger universities will already have experience of supporting disabled students through viva examinations. If so, they will have policy guidelines in place to help facilitate this process. You may be surprised at how comprehensive some of these are and how helpful they can be.
Further information and resources
One of the first things you’ll realise as a disabled PhD student is that you really aren’t alone.
Other students have faced similar challenges, associated with disability or chronic illness. Many of them have gone on to provide advice and resources drawn from their own experience. There are also lots of other postgraduate communities and forums around the web, full of helpful people able to offer advice and support to fellow students.
The following are some particularly helpful resources for PhD students with disabilities:
- PhDisabled - This dedicated blog covers issues concerning students and academics with disability or chronic illness. Here you’ll find a wide range of specific advice and articles and reflections as well as news of important events and developments relating to the needs of disabled PhD students.
- The Postgraduate Forum - If you’ve a question about postgraduate study, the Postgraduate Forum is a great place to ask it. Members are very helpful and several existing discussion threads relate to PhD study with a disability.
- NadineMuller.org.uk – A wide-ranging and very popular academic blog run by Dr Nadine Muller. Includes sections dedicated to PhD study with disability or chronic illness and academia and mental health.
- DpH: The Dyslexic PhD – A great series of videos by Dr. Emma Jefferies, reflecting on the experience of studying, writing and successfully completing a PhD with dyslexia.
- Disability Rights UK - A leading charity providing support, resources and advocacy for people with disabilities in the UK, including postgraduate students.
- The NUS - The National Union of Students (NUS) provides support for issues facing students at all levels of higher education and runs a specific Disabled Students Campaign.
Finally, don’t forget to investigate resources within your department or institution. Many universities will have offices and staff dedicated to supporting students with disabilities. Your student union should also be able to advise you and help ensure your needs are met.
Last updated - 15/02/2016